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研究生:李中莉
研究生(外文):Chung-li Lee
論文名稱:以合作閱讀策略教學促進學童閱讀理解與字彙學習能力
論文名稱(外文):PROMOTING READING COMPREHENSION ABILITY AND VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING
指導教授:張鑑如張鑑如引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-ju Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立台北師範學院
系所名稱:兒童英語教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:閱讀策略合作學習閱讀教學相互教學閱讀理解
外文關鍵詞:reading strategycooperative learningreading instructionreciprocal teachingreading comprehension
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近年來國小的英語教育在台灣備受重視,但其中的閱讀教學並未像聽說能力教學一樣被強調。然而,閱讀對於台灣這種外語學習者 (EFL learners) 而言,是最主要的一種獨立學習工具,因此其重要性不容忽視。本研究旨在探討合作閱讀策略教學(Collaborative Strategic Reading) 對於國小五年級學童的英語閱讀能力是否有幫助。此外,學童的閱讀策略使用情形與其閱讀態度也會深入分析。
合作閱讀策略教學是美國學者J. K. Klingner和 S. Vaughn於1999年提出的一種閱讀策略教學法,此教學法結合了合作學習 (Cooperative learning) 與相互教學法 (Reciprocal teaching) 的特性,學生在小組中互相幫助,運用學過的閱讀策略去解讀英文故事中的生字,分析大意,再將討論結果紀錄在閱讀筆記上。Klingner和Vaughn的研究證明了合作閱讀策略教學可以有效的增進第二語言學習者 (Second language learners) 的英語閱讀理解能力,字彙學習和學科知識。此外在小組討論中,學童98%的對話皆與學習相關。
本研究的對象是63位台北縣國小五年級的學童,首先他們被施以前測,包括英語認字能力 (word-naming),字彙能力 (Vocabulary) 以及閱讀理解能力 (reading comprehension),再隨機分派為實驗組與對照組兩組。實驗組使用合作閱讀策略學習,學生的小組討論被紀錄三次再做語料分析。對照組則使用傳統的老師主導講授教學 (Teacher-directed reading instruction)。兩組的學生接受為期14週,每週三節課的英語閱讀教學,期間他們一共閱讀了7本英語故事書及兩張歌曲學習單。後測之後,實驗組的學生被施以問卷調查,以探討學生對於合作閱讀策略教學的態度為何。
本研究的發現如下:
(1) 合作閱讀策略教學可以有效的增進國小五年級學童的英語閱讀理解,但對於字彙學習與認字能力則無顯著的功效。
(2) 實驗組的學生在小組討論中使用閱讀策略的情況日益進步。隨著實驗的進行,他們運用較多的文法知識去分析生字,解決意見分歧;他們在程序性問題、如何做閱讀紀錄以及與學習無關的對談也日益減少。此外,由語料分析中也可發現學生對於使用閱讀策略的獨特思考與創造性。
(3) 合作閱讀策略教學可以促進學生積極且正面的閱讀學習態度。
English education in primary schools has been highly valued in recent years. However, the reading instruction has not been put on as much emphasis as the speaking and listening instructions. Since reading is the central means for independent learning especially for EFL learners, the study is intended to conduct a reading strategy instruction, which is called the Collaborative Strategic Reading, to promote primary school students’ reading proficiency and to understand how they apply reading strategies.
The Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), which is proposed by J. K. Klingner and S. Vaughn in 1999, is found effective on enhancing reading comprehension ability, academic performance, and content learning on ESL students in the United States. CSR combines the principles of cooperative learning and reciprocal teaching. It is aimed to help students apply reading strategies through cooperative group discussion. In the CSR instructional context, students first learn reading strategies from their teacher and then apply the strategies through small, heterogeneous group discussion without their teacher’s directing. They cooperate and help each other dealing with the difficult words or concept in text. Besides, they record their discussion in their reading logs.
There were sixty-three fifth-grade students participating in this study. They were pretested and postested on the proficiency of word-naming, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Students practiced CSR in the experimental group, and their conversation in cooperative group discussion was transcribed and analyzed three times. In the control group, students received the traditional teacher-directed reading instruction. All the subjects read seven storybooks and two worksheets in fourteen weeks in this study. After posttesting, a questionnaire was used to examine students’ attitudes towards CSR.
The findings of the study are summarized as the following:
(1) CSR promotes students’ reading comprehension ability effectively, however, it does not enhance students’ word-naming and vocabulary abilities effectively in this study.
(2) Students in the CSR context have progress in using reading strategies over time.
(3) CSR facilitates students’ positive reading attitudes.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation of the Study 1
1.1.1 Importance of reading instruction in EFL classrooms 1
1.1.2 Need for reading strategy instruction 4
1.1.3 Plight of teacher-directed English teaching 5
1.2 Purposes of the Study 7
1.3 Research Questions 7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Reading Process 9
2.2 Component Skills in Reading 10
2.2.1 Word-naming 11
2.2.2 Vocabulary 13
2.2.3 Reading comprehension 14
2.3 Reading Instructional Models 16
2.3.1 Teaching with basal text (bottom-up model) 17
2.3.2 Language experience approach 17
2.3.3 Individualized reading program 18
2.3.4 Literature reading program 19
2.3.5 Whole language 20
2.4 The Rationale and Practice of CSR 21
2.4.1 Cooperative learning 23
2.4.2 Reciprocal teaching 26
2.4.3 Practice of CSR 28
2.5 Pilot Study 32
2.5.1 Modifications of CSR in pilot study 33
2.5.2 Difficulties in implementing CSR 34
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHOD 36
3.1 Subjects and Setting 36
3.2 Materials 37
3.3 Reading Instructions 38
3.3.1 Experimental group 39
3.3.2 Control group 43
3.4 Measures 44
3.4.1 Word-naming test 44
3.4.2 Vocabulary test 46
3.4.3 Reading comprehension test 46
3.4.4 Group discussion 47
3.4.5 Questionnaire 47
3.5 Data Collecting Procedures 50
3.6 Data Analysis 50
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 52
4.1 Students’ Performance in the Pretests and Posttests 52
4.1.1 Word-naming test 52
4.1.2 Vocabulary test 53
4.1.3 Reading comprehension test 54
4.2 Reading Strategies Used in CSR Group Discussion 56
4.2.1 Reading strategies used the most and least frequently 57
4.2.2 How students offer answers to their classmates 62
4.2.3 Ways to deal with disagreement and uncertainty 63
4.2.4 Other special situation 69
4.3 Students’ Attitudes Towards CSR 70
4.3.1 Results of interview 70
4.3.2 Preference for CSR & the Reasons 74
4.3.3 Advantages and disadvantages of CSR 75
4.4 Individual Changes Over Time 76
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION 79
5.1 Main Findings of this Study 79
5.1.1 Students’ general reading performance 79
5.1.2 Reading strategies students used in CSR group discussion 81
5.1.3 Students’ attitudes towards CSR group discussion 83
5.2 Comparison with Prior Researches 83
5.3 Pedagogical Implications 84
5.4 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Studies 85
REFERENCES 87
Appendix A--- Reading Log 95
Appendix B--- Sample of a Student’s Reading Log 96
Appendix C--- Word-Naming Test 97
Appendix D---Vocabulary Test 98
Appendix E---Two Pages Excerpted from a storybook in the Vocabulary Test 100
Appendix F---Vocabulary Test 101
Appendix G--- Reading Comprehension Test 102
Appendix H---Interview Questions 106
Appendix I---Questionnaire 107
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