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研究生:巫瑞珍
研究生(外文):Jui-Chen Wu
論文名稱:多媒體註解對第二語詞彙記憶的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Multimedia Annotations on Second Language Vocabulary Reteniton
指導教授:朱錫琴朱錫琴引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:多媒體註解第二語詞彙記憶學習者看法
外文關鍵詞:learners’ perceptionL2 vocabulary retentionmultimedia annotations
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電腦輔助教學的進步,使得學習者可以經由多媒體輔助如文本、字義、聲音、圖片及影片的結合,創造真實且有互動功能的學習環境。本研究主要探討以文字、圖像或文字+圖像的單字註解使用在電腦上的閱讀篇章對中學生的英語字彙的即時記憶及延遲記憶學習的影響。另外還調查學習者對本研究使用的多媒體註解效能及對幫助文字及閱讀理解的看法。
本實驗採用前測、立即後測及延遲後測實驗控制方法,參與研究的受測者為169位2002-03年就讀於中台灣高一學生,隨機分為控制組一組及實驗組三組-文字組、圖像組及文字+圖像組。研究者將一篇經前置研究所選出331字故事文章中生字依組別加上或不加上線上多媒體註解,三組實驗組學生分別閱讀加有三種多媒體生字註解模式的文章,自由點選生字註解,進行線上閱讀。
首先受測者接受字彙前測,一週後進行線上多媒體閱讀,並在閱讀後進行讀後回憶、填寫一份問卷及字彙即時後測,二週後接受字彙延遲後測。
實驗結果如下:1 )使用線上多媒體註解閱讀文章的三組實驗組兩次字彙後測成績表現(即時及延遲字彙記憶表現)均優於控制組學生。2) 文字組和圖像組在即時及延遲字彙記憶成績互異,兩組在兩次成績表現均未達顯著差異。3)文字+圖像組的即時及延遲字彙記憶成績沒有顯著差異。4)三組實驗組的延遲字彙記憶成績均明顯比即時字彙記憶成績減少,但是控制組則無不同。5)受測者對本實驗中的多媒體皆非常同意聲音、文字或圖像功能清楚且能協助字彙及文意的理解,尤其文字+圖像組的滿意度皆高於其他各組。
本研究證明使用線上多媒體註解閱讀文章有助於即時及延遲字彙記憶,本實驗結果也對設計多媒體輔助教學及未來研究提出建議。
Integration of texts, audios, graphics, pictures, or even videos into computer program creates an authentic and interactive environment for learning languages. Still, how well Taiwanese high school ESL students learn L2 vocabulary via CALL-based annotated text for comprehension deserves more attention. The purpose of this study is to compare effects of three modes of vocabulary annotation in on-line reading text, text mode, picture mode and text-picture combination mode, on immediate and delayed vocabulary retention, plus analyze learners’ perceptions toward efficacy of multimedia annotations in on-line reading programs.
The study adopted a four-group pretest-immediate posttest-delayed posttest experimental design. Twelve target words in a 331-word story were annotated under four separate conditions: (1) control with no annotation, (2) text only, (3) picture only, and (4) combined text/picture annotations in a computer program. Randomly assigned to the groups were 169 students from a senior high school in central Taiwan. First, all participants took a vocabulary recognition pretest in the first week. One week later, they read the story and were instructed to look up all words for annotated information available in their treatment in a computer laboratory. Then they performed a reading recall, a second vocabulary recognition test as an immediate posttest and a questionnaire. Two weeks later, they took a delayed posttest.
ANCOVA analyses indicated that impact of annotation types on vocabulary retention attained significantly better results for the three experimental groups on the immediate posttest and also delayed posttest than the control group. Post hoc analysis of different annotation effects among treatment groups demonstrated no significant difference on immediate and delayed posttests. Retention difference between two posttests was significant within each experimental group. Analysis of questionnaire data revealed learners’ perceptions toward effectiveness of multimedia in terms of the clarity and comprehensibility, along with boosting vocabulary and reading comprehension, were highly positive, especially the text-picture combination group. The implications for multimedia design and future study were drawn.
Table of Contents

Acknowledgements i
Table of Contents iii
List of Tables vi
List of Figures vii
Chinese Abstract viii
English Abstract xi
Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Computer-Assisted Language Reading 2
Second Language Vocabulary Learning 3
Multimedia Environment and Vocabulary Learning 4
Purpose of the Study 5
Significance of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Definition of Terms 8
Context/ Reading Text 8
Multimedia 8
Annotation / Glossing 8
Vocabulary Retention 9
Overview of the Study 9
Chapter II. LITERATURE REVIEW 10
Theoretical Background for Multimedia Processing 10
Dual Coding Theory 10
Generative Theory of Multimedia Learning 11
Cognitive Load in Reading Task 13
Empirical Research 13
Context and Vocabulary Learning 14
How much vocabulary is learned from context 14
Problems for guessing from L2 context 15
Annotation 15
Dictionary use and annotation 16
Benefits of annotation in a text 17
Annotation numbers for comprehension 17
Multimedia Annotation 18
Multimedia vs. printed annotation 18
Multimedia annotations and second language
vocabulary learning 19
Effect of annotation language, L1 vs. L2 20
Effects of annotation formats 21
Students’ Perceptions Toward Multimedia Annotations 23
Calls for Further Study 24
Chapter III. METHODOLOGY 26
Research Questions 26
Pilot Study to Determine Text and Target Words 27
Step 1: Selecting Text 28
Step 2: Selecting Target Words & Confirming Suitability
of Reading Text 28
The Main Study 29
Participants 30
Background information 30
Homogeneity test: analysis of variance among groups 30
Instrumentation 31
Hypertext design with multimedia annotations 31
Vocabulary recognition test 34
Reading recall 35
Questionnaire 35
Design 36
Data Collection Procedure 38
Session one 38
Session two 38
Session three 39
Analyses 40
Statistical analyses of vocabulary test 40
Analyses of questionnaire data 41
Summary 43
Chapter IV. RESULTS 44
Results of Vocabulary Posttests 44
Immediate Vocabulary Retention 44
Effects of multimedia annotations 45
Comparison of effect of text versus picture annotation 46
Comparison of effect of text-picture annotation with
effect of text annotation and effect of picture
annotation 47
Delayed Vocabulary Retention 48
Effects of multimedia annotations 48
Comparison of effect of text versus picture annotation 50
Comparison of effect of text-picture annotation with
effect of text annotation and effect of picture
annotation 51
Difference in Retention Between Two Posttests Within
Groups 51
Learners’ Perceptions of Multimedia Function 54
Effectiveness of Multimedia 54
Audio 54
Text annotation 57
Picture annotation 58
Summary of the Results 59
CHAPTER V. DISCUSSION & IMPLICATIONS 61
Discussion 61
Effects of Multimedia Annotation on Vocabulary Retention 62
Effects of Text and Picture Annotation 63
Effects of Combined Text and Picture Annotation 63
Memory Loss Between Posttests 66
Students’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of
Multimedia Function 67
Audio 67
Text annotation 68
Picture annotation 68
Implications 68
Implications for Multimedia Design 69
Implications for Future Study 70
References 72
Appendix A. Target Word Check – List 82
Appendix B. Reading Text “The King and the Turtle” 86
Appendix C. Chinese Questionnaire & English Questionnaire 88
Appendix D. ANOVA Table on Voc1000 by Groups 94
Appendix E. Text and Picture Annotation for Target Words 95
Appendix F. Sample of Vocabulary Recognition Test 96
Appendix G. Reading Recall 97





List of Tables

Table 1. Group Design & Hypertext for Reading 37
Table 2. Data Collection Procedure 40
Table 3. Statistical Procedures of Vocabulary Tests and Questionnaire for Perceptions of Multimedia Function 45
Table 4. ANCOVA Result for Vocabulary Immediate Posttest by Group 45
Table 5. Adjusted Mean Scores of Vocabulary Immediate Posttest
by Group 46
Table 6. Pairwise Comparison of Immediate Posttest Means Among Four Groups 47
Table 7. ANCOVA Result for Vocabulary Delayed Posttest by Group 49
Table 8. Adjusted Mean Scores of Vocabulary Delayed Posttest by Group 49
Table 9. Pairwise Comparison of the Delayed Posttest Means Among Four Groups 50
Table 10. t-Test Results: Retention Difference Between Posttests Within Groups 52
Table 11. ANOVA Results: Effects of Audio on Student Perception Among Four Groups 55
Table 12. Pairwise Comparison of the Effects of Audio on Student Perception for Four Groups 56
Table 13. t – test Results on Effects of Text Annotation on Student Perception for Text and Text-Picture Combination Group 58
Table 14. t – test Results on Effects of Picture Annotation on Student Perception for Picture and Text-Picture Combination Group 59




List of Figures

Figure 1. Model of Mayer’s (1997) Generative Theory of Multimedia Learning 12
Figure 2a. Audio 32
Figure 2b. Text Annotation 33
Figure 2c. Picture Annotation 33
Figure 3. Screen Sample of the Selected Multimedia Annotation in Combination Group 34
Figure 4. Mean Differences for Groups on Immediate and Delayed Posttests 53
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