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研究生:何秋月
研究生(外文):Chio-Yueh Ho
論文名稱:中文聽覺隱喻分析研究
論文名稱(外文):A Semantic Study of Auditory Perception Metaphors in Chinese
指導教授:王萸芳王萸芳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Fang Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:轉喻聽覺意像基模譬喻
外文關鍵詞:metaphormetonymyhearing perceptionimage schema
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本論文用Lakoff 和Johnson (1980)的理論基礎來解釋中文裡相關於聽覺的隱喻用法。 此外, Johoson (1987) 認為, 人類的外在抽象經驗構成隱喻用法的基礎, 並且人們還透過某些基模來理解這些抽象經驗。 依據 Johnson 的意象基模研究方法, 本論文也從相關於耳朵或聽覺的語言行為來描述隱喻用法。研究中文聽覺譬喻的結果有五點: 一. 中文聽覺隱喻的運用是透過從具體感覺域轉換到抽象感覺域之間的對映。此一趨勢符合了Sweetser研究印歐語系裡的聽覺動詞所得之結論: 關於身體知覺的辭彙顯現了與內部自我與內在感官詞彙的系統性隱喻運用的連結, 而聽覺的目標域一般來說都發展成抽象的心智活動。 二. 聽覺動詞的多義產生了例如注意, 了解, 受制於, 服從, 管理, 判斷, 和收集資訊等隱喻。 多義現象,就中文聽覺動詞而言, 證實為其隱喻對映與語意變化的主要因素。三.本論文也證實中文提供了Sweetser的「內部的與受制的自我」論點另一證據﹔即外在的聽覺與注意, 服從, 受制於等意義相連結為一普遍性的現象。此外, 聽覺動詞在中文裡也有管理與治理,判斷與決定等運用智能的聯想。中國文化中對上層統治階層應該要有聽微絕疑之道的要求提供了形成發展此一較智識性思維過程的外在基礎。四. 本論文也發現到,中文裡,耳朵或聽覺動詞可與其它詞纇並列形成其它獨立的詞別。例如, 與眼睛或視覺詞並列時, 此一纇詞組即提供了支持Sweetser另一論點的隱喻基礎, 即聽覺與視覺為人類智識性思考的主要器官。若與反義形容詞動詞(形容詞占大多數)或其他身體器官詞並列時,即可產生隱喻象徵,可使我們藉此理解人類內部自我心理性與情感性的那一面。最後,本論文採用了容器, 力, 接觸, 控制 (CONTAINER, FORCE, CONTACT, CONTROL) 等意象基模證明了人類溝通的最終目標為「建立溝通管道」, 其最後結果為, Sweetser觀點的聽者的「溝通與受制的內部自我」, 或本論文證明的, 說話者對「聽話者的控制」。
The present study attempts to adopt the theoretical frameworks constructed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980) to exemplify the different types of metaphorical usages in terms of Chinese auditory perception. In addition, as Johnson (1987) claims, metaphors are based on our abstract experiences of the outside world and we interpret them in certain schemata. Following Johnson’s (1987) image-schemata approach, this study describes the metaphors from the cases of the metaphors in the domain of linguistic actions concerning ears or the auditory perception. The results of the findings come up with five points. First, the Chinese auditory perception metaphors are systematically structured via metaphorical mapping of concrete domain onto abstract domain. This trend conforms to the results of Sweetser’s study on I.E. hearing perception that “the vocabulary of physical perception shows systematic metaphorical connections with the vocabulary of internal self and internal sensations” (1990:45), and that the target domain for hearing perception generally develops abstract mental activities. Second, the multiple senses of the hearing verb motivate such metaphors as heedfulness, understanding, subjectivity of oneself, obedience, managing, judging and getting information. Polysemy is confirmed to be the main factor for metaphorical mapping and semantic change in terms of the Chinese hearing verb. Third, The “internal and subjective self “ is also revealed in this study that Chinese also serves as one more evidence to Sweetser’s argument that physical hearing connected with heeding, obedience, and a ready subjectivity of oneself is a universal phenomenon. Moreover, the hearing verb is found to carry more of the intellectual connotations such as managing and governing, judging and deciding. The requirements of a good ruling party from the perspective of the Chinese culture is the basis which provides the physical experience to motivate the more intellectual thinking process. In this study, we also have found that ears or hearing can be collocated with other lexical categories to form independent lexical items. When collocated with eyes or visions, they motivate the metaphors which support Sweetser’s (1990) claim that hearing and sight are our major organs connected with intellectual processing. Ears and hearing can also be collocated with antonymic adjectives and verbs (mostly adjectives) and other body parts to create the symbolic metaphors, which allow us to comprehend the internally psychological or emotional side of our internal self. The exploiting of the image schemata such as CONTANER, FORCE, CONTACT, and CONTROL, proves that the target of the human communication is to establish “communicative channeling” (extended from Pauwels and Simon-Vandenbergen’s view on linguistic action, 1995), whose final result is a “communicative and subjective internal self” in terms of the hearer, as in Sweetser’s view (1990), or “ the control of the subject” (the hearer) in terms of the speaker, as is supported in this thesis.
Chinese Abstract…………………………………………………………i
English Abstract...………………………………………………………ii
Acknowledgements…………………………………………….……….iv
List of Tables…………………………………………………………….v
Table of Contents……………………………………………….………vi
Chapter One: Introduction…...………………………………….…….1
1.1 Motivation………………………………………………………2
1.2 Defining the Scope of the Auditory Perception Related to Metaphors…………
……………………………………….5
1.3 Objectives and Research Questions……………………6
1.4 Data Collection…………………………………………………7
1.5 Organization of the Thesis…………………………………8
Chapter Two: Literature Review and Theoretical Frameworks……9
2.1 Conceptual Metaphors and Metaphorical Systems……………9
2.2 The Systematicity of Metaphorical Concepts…………………10
2.3 The Models of Metaphors…………………………………………11
2.3.1 Structural Metaphors……………………………………….11
2.3.2 Ontological Metaphors……………………………………..12
2.3.3 Metonymy………………………………………………….13
2.4 The Framework of Image Schemata and Its Relation with Metaphors...........
........................................17
2.5 Polysemy, Semantic Change, and Metaphor……………………20
2.5.1 Polysemy…………………………………………………...20
2.5.2 Semantic Change…………………………………………...21
2.5.3 The Interrelationship between Polysemy, Semantic change, and Metaphor……
………………………………………...21
2.5.4 Sweetser’s Communicative and Subjective Internal Self for Hearing
Perception………………………………………..22
2.6  Studies on the Auditory Perception in Chinese Language………..23
2.6.1 Tsai (1994)…………………………………………………23
2.6.2 Yang (2000)………………………………………………...24
2.7 Focus of the Present Study…………………………………25
2.8 Theoretical Basis……………………………………………….…26
Chapter Three: Structural Model of the Chinese Auditory Perception of Metaphors
…………………………………………………………...28
3.1  Hearing is Eating Food…………………………………………28
3.2  Listening to is Paying Attention to…………………………30
3.3  Hearing is Understanding………………………………………31
3.4  Being Receptive is Hearing and not Being Receptive is Being Deaf…………
…………………………………………………...32
3.5  Hearing is Obeying………………………………………………34
3.6  Hearing is Submitting Oneself to……………………………35
3.7  Hearing is Being Waiting for…………………………………36
3.8  Hearing is Managing and Governing……………………………37
3.9  Hearing is Judging and Deciding……………………………38
3.10 Hearing is Getting Information………………………………39
3.11 Being Deaf is Being Mentally Stupid…………………………41
3.12 The Differences between English and Chinese Auditory
Perception Metaphors……………….. …………………………42
Chapter Four: Ontological models of the Chinese Auditory perception of
Metaphors………………………………………………46
4.1  The Ears as an Entity…………………………………………46
4.1.1 The Ears as a Communicator……………………………...47
4.1.2 The Ears as a Hearer………………………………………48
4.1.3 The Ears as an Entity of an Object…………………….….52
4.1.3.1The Ears or Hearing for Function-base Objects……52
4.1.3.2 The Ears for Shape-based Objects…………………53
4.1.3.3 The Ears for Position-based Objects………………54
4.1.3.4 The Ears for Shape and Position-based Objects…...55
4.2  The Ears as Containers…………………………………………58
   4.2.1 The Ears as Containers for Emotions…………………58
4.2.2 The Ears as Containers for Words or Sounds……………..59
4.2.3 The Ears as Containers for Receiving or Rejecting Words
or Sounds…………………………………………………..62
4.3  Summary…………………………………………………………65
Chapter Five: The Metonymical Models of the Chinese Auditory perception of
Metaphors………………………………………………66
5.1  The Ears or Hearing for a Person……………………………66
5.2  The Ears for Personality………………………………………68
5.3  Ears or Hearing for Receptibility for Hearing……………70
5.4  Ears for Hearing or Power of Hearing………………………73
5.5  Ears or Physical Hearing for Intellect……………………76
5.6  Physical Hearing for Judging Ability………………………78
5.7  Hearing for Opinions…………………………………………….79
5.8  Physical Hearing for Inner Sensation……………………79
5.9  Physical Action of Ears for (not) Paying Attention……81
5.10 Physical Actions of Ears for Internal Psychological or Emotional
Agitation………………………………………………………82
5.11 Summary…………………………………………………………87
Chapter Six: The Interaction of Metaphors and Image Schemata91
6.1  Container Schema………………………………………………..91
6.2  Container and Force Schemata..………………………………95
6.2.1 Speaker’s Action or Outside Entity as an Exertion of
FORCE on the Container (the Hearer)…………………….95
   6.2.2 Hearer’s Action as an Exertion of FORCE on the Container (the
Hearer Himself or Herself)………………………97
6.3  Container, Force, and Contact Schemata..………………100
6.4  Result in Control..……………………………………………102
6.4. 1 Obeying..………………………………………………..102
6.4.2 Submitting Oneself to…………………………………..103
Chapter Seven: The Characteristics of Auditory Perception Metaphors in Chinese
………………………………………………..106
7.1  Ears and Hearing as the Source Domains in Conceptual Metaphors……………
………………………………………...106
7.2  The Support of Sweetser’s “Communicative and
Subjective Internal Self”……………………………………….114
7.3  Polysemy, Metaphor, and Semantic Change for the Chinese Hearing Verb……
………………………………………………117
7.4  The Development and Collocation of Ears and Other Word Categories
Providing Motivation for Metaphorical Mapping….118
   7.4.1 Ears Collocated with Other Antonymic Pairs of
Adjectives or Verbs………………………………………119
   7.4.2 Ears or Hearing Collocated with Eyes or Vision…120
   7.4.3 Ears Collocated with Other Human Parts……………124
7.5  Image Schemata Governing Certain Metaphors and Supporting
the Existence of Them…………………………………………124
Chapter Eight: Conclusion…………………………………………..128
8.1  Summary……………………………………………………….128
8.2  Justification of the Present Study and Suggestions for Further Study……
……………………………………………………..130
References…………………………………………………………….132
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