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研究生:劉啟威
研究生(外文):Chi-Wei Liu
論文名稱:不同斷面型式之高層建築對設計風載重之風洞實驗研究
論文名稱(外文):A Wind Tunnel Experiment Investigation on High-Rise Buildings’ Design Wind Load
指導教授:鄭啟明鄭啟明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chii-Ming Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:184
中文關鍵詞:高層建築風洞實驗力平衡儀斷面形式幾何造型修正模式設計風載重
外文關鍵詞:high-rise buildingwind tunnel experimentforce balancecross-section shapegeometric shapemodified formuladesign wind load
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隨著工商業蓬勃發展,在土地與空間的有限下,高層建築已成為為主要的趨勢。除受到地震力的影響外,風力亦為高層建築主要的側向風載重。而為求造型之美觀與變化,使得外觀造型亦朝向多元化設計,故高層建築在斷面形式及幾何造型的影響將為設計風載重的主要課題。
本文實驗主要經由重複及修正前人實驗與數據整合,探討九種不同斷面型式的高層建築在平坦與都市地形於0度攻角下所受風力。並根據不同斷面型式之結構物在相同地況C下建立合適的修正模式,以預測複合修正斷面型式的高層建築所受的風力。九個主題系列之模型如下:(1)深寬比系列(2)正多邊形系列(3)L型系列(4)不規則型系列(5)橢圓形系列(6)高寬比系列(7)削角比系列(8)起始退縮高度系列(9)每段退縮寬度系列。其中前五個主題系列以一高寬比7,其長、寬及高分別為40、40及280公尺之建築為容積率基準,使探討之高層建築有相同斷面積及高度;後四個主題系列以一高寬比5,其長、寬及高分別為50、50及250公尺之建築為容積率基準,使其有相同之體積。實驗採用力平衡儀量測法,配合美國科羅拉多州立大學風洞實驗室的評估方法,推算出不同斷面型式系列結構物之設計風載重,比較其差異性,並以風洞實驗驗證修正模式的合理性。
就本文實驗結果得知,不同地況對於設計風載重的趨勢影響不大。以相同體積為條件下,高寬比愈大,設計風力亦隨之增大。與高寬比5比較,削角系列在順風向有較明顯的降低效應,退縮系列卻無明顯的折減效果。但當退縮系列高度大於未退縮段時,退縮寬度是較退縮高度能夠有效降低風載重的模型系列。由驗證修正模式得知,在動態風力方面,相對於背景反應,共振反應對於動態風力影響及貢獻遠大於前者。可知風力頻譜修正除頻譜擾動能量的要求外,高頻段結構共振所對應之頻譜值亦需特別小心。
In a modern city where land is expensive, high-rise buildings play important roles in the city development. Besides the earthquake force, wind force becomes an important lateral design load for high-rise buildings. To satisfy architectures’ aesthetic requirement, buildings tend to have variety of geometry shapes and appearances. Therefore, the effects of cross-section and geometric shape on the design wind load becomes an important design issue for high-rise buildings.
This thesis is to study the wind forces acting on nine different series of building cross-section shapes in both urban and open terrain flow fields. Based on these data, empirical formulae were derived to predict wind load on tall buildings. The nine series of cross-section sahpes are: (1) width/depth ratio series, (2) pure polygon series, (3) L series, (4) irregular series, (5) ellipse series, (6) aspect ratio series, (7) chamfered corner ratio series, (8) initial recess height series, (9) recess width at each level series. The cross-section area and height of the first five categories of testing models are identical to a square prism with aspect ratio of 7. The volumes of the rest four categories are same as the one with aspect ratio of 5. Force balance technique was used to measure the wind force. Design wind load at each floor of the target building were then calculated.
The experimental results indicate that, different flow fields have the same trend of influence on the design wind load. Increasing the aspect ratio will increase lateral design wind load. Comparing with the experiment results on the aspect ratio of 5 model, chamfered corner ratio series will cause significant decrease on the drag force, but recess series models have little effects. Higher the recess series models, lesser the wind force. Based on the detail analysis, the resonant part of wind incuced response has greater influence on dynamic wind load than the backgound part. It should be noticed that, besides paying attention to the spectral energy, the high frequency zone of the wind force spectrum has significant influence on the buildings’ resonant response, and therefore, should be treated with extra attention.
第一章 緒論
1-1 研究動機 ................... 1-1
1-2 研究目的 ................... 1-1
1-3 研究方法 ................... 1-2
1-4 研究內容 ................... 1-3
1-5 論文架構 ................... 1-4
第二章 文獻回顧
2-1 大氣邊界層之風洞模擬 ...................2-1
2-2 雷諾數效應 ...................2-2
2-3 阻塞效應 ...................2-2
2-4 力平衡儀之風力量測 ...................2-3
2-5 紊流對風力係數之影響 ...................2-3
2-5-1紊流對順風向風力係數之影響 ...................2-3
2-5-2 紊流對橫風向風力係數之影響 ...................2-4
2-5-3 紊流對扭轉向風力係數之影響 ...................2-4
2-6 紊流對風力頻譜之影響 ...................2-4
2-6-1 紊流對順風向風力頻譜之影響 ...................2-4
2-6-2 紊流對橫風向風力頻譜之影響 ................... 2-5
2-6-3 紊流對扭轉向風力頻譜之影響 ...................2-5
2-7 風向攻角對風力係數之影響 ...................2-6
2-7-1 風向攻角對二維風力係數之影響 ...................2-6
2-7-2 風向攻角對三維風力係數之影響 ...................2-7
2-8 模型斷面之修正對風力係數之影響 ...................2-7
2-9 模型斷面之修正對風力頻譜之影響 ...................2-8
第三章 理論背景
3-1 大氣邊界層之流場特性 ...................3-1
3-1-1 平均風速剖面 ...................3-1
3-1-2 紊流強度 ...................3-2
3-1-3 紊流長度尺度 ...................3-3
3-1-4 擾動風速頻譜 ...................3-4
3-1-5 縱向速度擾動的交頻譜(Cross-Spectra) ...................3-5
3-2 隨機數據處理 ...................3-6
3-3 鈍體氣動力現象 ...................3-8
3-4 結構物之風載重 ...................3-10
3-4-1 順風向風力作用 ...................3-10
3-4-2 橫風向風力作用 ...................3-13
3-4-3 扭轉向風力作用 ...................3-14
3-5 力平衡儀量測架構 ...................3-15
3-6 力平衡儀量測原理 ...................3-16
3-6-1 基本原理 ...................3-16
3-6-2 本實驗研究採用之理論推導 ...................3-18
第四章 實驗設置與數據處理
4-1 風洞設備 ...................4-1
4-2 大氣邊界層流場之模擬 ...................4-1
4-3 風速量測 ...................4-3
4-4 風力量測 ...................4-3
4-4-1 六軸向力平衡儀之描述 ...................4-3
4-4-2 力平衡儀之準確性校定 ...................4-4
4-4-3 力平衡儀量測系統之架設 ...................4-4
4-5 模型製作 ...................4-5
4-6 不同斷面型式模型之主題系列說明 ...................4-6
4-7 實驗數據及採樣分析 ...................4-7
4-8 重複實驗與數據整合 ...................4-8
4-9 高層建築風力分配之計算 ...................4-9
第五章 實驗結果與討論
5-1 實驗之準確性與可靠性 ...................5-2
5-2 風力係數之探討 ...................5-2
5-3 風力頻譜之探討 ...................5-4
5-3-1 風力頻譜之平滑修正與切斷點 ...................5-5
5-3-2 不同斷型式對風力頻譜之影響 ...................5-6
5-4 建立修正模式 ...................5-8
5-4-1 修正模式之原理 ...................5-9
5-4-2 單一修正斷面型式之修正原理 ...................5-9
5-4-3 複合修正斷面型式之修正原理 ...................5-11
5-5 實際建物各樓層之風載重分配 ...................5-14
5-5-1 不同斷面型式高層建築之靜態與動態風載重比較 ...................5-14
5-5-2 不同斷面型式高層建築之設計風載重比較 ...................5-17
5-6 修正模式之驗證 ...................5-20
5-6-1 單一修正斷面型式之驗證 ...................5-20
5-6-2 複合修正斷面型式之驗證 ...................5-21
第六章 結論與建議
6-1 結論 ...................6-1
6-2 建議 ...................6-2
參考文獻…………………………………………………………R-1~R-4
附圖………………………………………………………FG3-1 ~FG5-66
附表…………………………………………………TABLE-1~TABLE-8
附錄
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