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研究生:楊永鑫
研究生(外文):Yung-Hsin Yang
論文名稱:三段式改良法處理豬糞尿廢水之研究
論文名稱(外文):A study on treatment of swinery wastewater by three-stage improvement process
指導教授:徐錠基徐錠基引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ting-Chi Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:水資源及環境工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:豬糞尿水力負荷三段式處理程序水生植物
外文關鍵詞:swinery wastewaterhydraulic retention timethree-stage processaquatic plant
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豬糞尿廢水為一高濃度的有機性廢水,且氮、磷含量比例高,三段式處理程序主要以去除豬糞尿廢水中大量有機物質及懸浮固體為目標,但對於氮,磷之去除效果卻不甚理想,處理後之放流水中常含有大量之氮、磷,如排放於自然水體之中常造成水體優養化,影響水質。 本篇主要利用水生植物對氮、磷的需求特性,考慮於三段式處理程序後段之好氣槽中置入水生植物可增加三段式處理程序對氮、磷之去除效果。研究中利用布袋蓮、水芙蓉、槐葉蘋、滿江紅及浮萍等五種水生植物在野外進行連續流操作實驗,以水力停留時間為變數,探討對廢水中氮、磷之去除效果。 結果顯示在氮、磷的去除部份,發現單位面積每天去除量並沒有隨著水力停留時間增加而上升;比較五種水生植物在不同的水力停留時間下對氮、磷的去除效果得到:對氮而言水芙蓉在水力停留時間為1天時有最大單位面積每天去除量5.25〜5.95g/m2-d,其次為布袋蓮水力停留時間1天3.88〜4.26 g/m2-d,對磷而言則在水力停留時間為1天時,試程一之槐葉萍0.61 g/m2-d及試程二之浮萍0.52 g/m2-d有最佳單位面積每天去除量。
Swinery wastewater contains intensity of organic material, nitrogen and phosphorus. We found out that three-stage process can not improve the efficiency on removing the nitrogen and phosphorus. The effluent may cause eutrophication in nature water.
Five aquatic plants contain water-hyacinth, water lettuce, salvinia natans, azolla pinnata and duckweed were used to purity wastewater in this study, this study was proceeded by outdoors continuous-flow experiments. Hydraulic retention time is used as variable parameters to investigate the removal effect of nitrogen and phosphorus.
In the different hydraulic retention time, the removal ability of five aquatic plants were compared. The results show that while the hydraulic retention time was 1 day, the water lettuce and water-hyacinth had batter removal amount of nitrogen, there were 5.25~5.95g/m2-d, 3.88~4.26 g/m2-d. As far as phosphorus remove, while the hydraulic retention time was 1 day, the salvinia natans and duckweed had batter removal amount, 0.61g/m2-d, 0.52 g/m2-d.
目錄
目錄………………………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
圖目錄.............................................................................................................................. Ⅲ
表目錄.............................................................................................................................. Ⅴ
第一章 前言……………………………………..……………………………………..... 1
1-1 研究緣由…………………………………………………………………………..1
1-2 研究目的…………………………………………………………………………..3
第二章 文獻回顧................................................................................................…........... 4
2-1 氮的去除..................................................…...............................……………….....4
2-1-1 硝化作用……………………………………………………….……………..6
2-1-2 脫硝作用…………………………………………………………………….10
2-1-3 氮化合物對人體及環境的影響……………………………...……………..14
2-2 磷的去除....................................................................................………............... 15
2-3 養豬概況...............................................................…...............…………..………18
2-3-1 豬糞尿廢水特性........................................................................………….... 19
2-3-2 豬糞尿廢水的處理流程與效能.................................................…………... 20
2-4 水生植物.............................................................................................………….. 23
2-4-1 水生植物的定義...........................................................................……......... 23
2-4-2 水生植物淨化水質的應用............................................................................ 25
2-4-3 研究用水生植物………….............................................................………... 26
第三章 實驗裝置與實驗方法..............................................................................……... 31
3-1 實驗裝置..............................................................................................………......31
3-2 實驗方法..........................................................................................…………..... 36
3-2-1 實場調查.…….............................................................................…….......... 36
3-2-2 野外試驗...........................................................................................……..... 36
3-3 分析項目、方法與採樣頻率......................................................................……....38
第四章 結果與討論...................................................................................................….. 40
4-1 實場調查……........................................................................……........…...….... 40
4-1-1 COD的去除.......................................................................…….................…... 44
4-1-2 氮的去除...........................................................................................……..... 45
4-1-2 磷的去除.............................................................................................……... 49
4-2 批次試驗………………………………………………………………………....51
4-2-1 植體之生長………………………………………………………………….52
4-2-2 電導度(EC)之去除……………………………………………………….55
4-2-3 廢水中氮、磷與鉀之去除……………………………………………….…57
4-2-4 四種植物對廢水中營養的吸收量………………………………………….62
4-3 連續試驗…………………………………………………………………………64
4-3-1 試程一之氮、磷去除………………………………………………….……64
4-3-2 試程二之氮、磷去除…………………………………….…………………71
4-3-3 綜合討論...........................................................................………................. 78
第五章 結論與建議......................................................................................…................83
5-1 結論..........................................………………………………………..................83
5-2 建議..................................................................…………………………………..85
參考文獻................................................................................................................…....... 86
圖目錄
圖2-1-1 氮的循環..............................................……..........................................…........ 5
圖2-1-2 pH變化對最大硝化速率之影響..........................................................….….. ..9
圖2-1-3 碳氮比與脫氮率之關係圖...................................................................….….. 12
圖2-2-1 磷蓄積菌厭氧釋磷模式.......................................................................…....... 16
圖2-2-2 磷蓄積菌好氧攝磷模式.....................................................................…......... 17
圖2-3-1 歷年養豬調查結果統計………........................................................…...........18
圖2-3-2 三段式處理系統之詳細流程圖........................................................…...........21
圖2-4-1 布袋蓮之外觀...............................................……………………....................27
圖2-4-2 水芙蓉之外觀...............................................…………………....................... 28
圖2-4-3 槐葉蘋之外觀..................................................………………….................... 29
圖2-4-4 滿江紅之外觀....................................................…….......................................30
圖3-1-1 養豬場處理設施平面配置圖.............................……..................................... 33
圖3-1-2 槽體規格及其串接方式.................................................................................. 34
圖3-1-3 野外連續流試驗配置圖.................................................................................. 35
圖4-1-1 各槽體間EC值的變化.............................................……................................ 42
圖4-1-2 各槽體間DO值的變化............................................….................................... 42
圖4-1-3 ORP與DO在各槽間之變化圖...............................................…………......... 43
圖4-1-4 各槽體間pH值的變化.............................................................…………........ 43
圖4-1-5 COD在各槽間的濃度變化圖.................................................….................... 44
圖4-1-6 各槽間TKN的濃度變化圖.......................................................…................... 45
圖4-1-7 NO2-N及NO3-N在各槽間的濃度變化....................................……….......... 46
圖4-1-8 總氮及有機氮在各槽間濃度變化.....................................………................. 47
圖4-1-9 在各槽間TN中各項的組成............................................................................. 48
圖4-1-10 T-P及正磷酸鹽在各槽間的濃度變化.....................................…................. 50
圖4-2-1 ORP變化圖...................................................................…………………....... 52
圖4-2-2 批式試驗四種水生植物之生長情形...............................……....................... 54
圖4-2-3 不同初始EC值對滿江紅生長的影響..............................……........................55
圖4-2-4 四種植物對廢水EC之去除比較圖...................................…….......................56
圖4-2-5 批式試驗布袋蓮對氮、磷與鉀之去除..............................……......................59
圖4-2-6 批式試驗水芙蓉對氮、磷與鉀之去除...............................…........................60
圖4-2-7 批式試驗槐葉蘋對氮、磷與鉀之去除....................................……...............60
圖4-2-8 批式試驗滿江紅對氮、磷與鉀之去除....................................……...............61
圖4-2-9 四種植物對K的去除............................................………………………........61
圖4-3-1 單試驗桶HRT=1時無機氮的各項組成的濃度變化圖.............……..............67
圖4-3-2 單試驗桶HRT=1時正磷酸鹽的濃度變化圖..........................………….…....67
圖4-3-3 單試驗桶HRT=1.5天時無機氮的各項組成的濃度變化圖..........……......... 68
圖4-3-4 單試驗桶HRT=1.5天時正磷酸鹽的濃度變化圖....................……………... 69
圖4-3-5 單試驗桶HRT=1.85天時無機氮的各項組成的濃度變化圖.......….............. 70
圖4-3-6 單試驗桶HRT=1.85天時正磷酸鹽的濃度變化圖.................…………........ 70
圖4-3-7 單試驗桶HRT=1時無機氮的各項組成的濃度變化圖....................…….......74
圖4-3-8 單試驗桶HRT=1時正磷酸鹽的濃度變化圖......................…………….........75
圖4-3-9 單試驗桶HRT=1.5天時無機氮的各項組成的濃度變化圖........……........... 76
圖4-3-10 單試驗桶HRT=1.5天時正磷酸鹽的濃度變化圖..............…………........... 76
圖4-3-11 單試驗桶HRT=2天時無機氮的各項組成的濃度變化圖.......………......... 77
圖4-3-12 單試驗桶HRT=2天時正磷酸鹽的濃度變化圖...........……………............. 78
圖4-3-13 試程一中四種植物在不同HRT下對無機氮的去除量比較...........……..... 81
圖4-3-14 試程一中四種植物在不同HRT下對正磷酸鹽的去除量比較........…….... 81
圖4-3-15 試程二中四種植物在不同HRT下對無機氮的去除量比較............…….... 82
圖4-3-16 試程二中四種植物在不同HRT下對正磷酸鹽的去除量比較.........……... 82
表目錄
表2-1 BOD5/TKN與硝化菌比例之間的關係...........................................……....... 10
表2-2 生物處理除磷之步驟........................................................................……..... 16
表2-3 不同體重的豬隻的豬糞尿排泄量....................................................……......19
表2-4 豬糞尿的理化特性....................................................………………............. 20
表2-5 台灣蓄產試驗所與其他附屬場所三段式豬糞尿處理效果............…..........22
表3-3-1 實驗分析項目、方法及設備..................................................………............ 39
表4-1-1 試驗期間各項環境因子檢測結果............................................……….......... 41
表4-2-1 批次試驗期間環境的各項因子...................................................................... 51
表4-2-2 批式試驗四種植物之生長率迴歸比較.......................................…………....54
表4-2-3 批式試驗四種植物之EC去除迴歸比較................................................…..... 56
表4-2-4 批式試驗四種植物之氮、磷、鉀去除迴歸比較.................................…..... 59
表4-2-5 四種植體可燃份等之比較表........................................................…….......... 63
表4-3-1 試驗期間各水力停留時間之環境因子平均值....................................…...... 64
表4-3-2 HRT=4天實驗分析結果平均值...................................................…………... 65
表4-3-3 HRT=6天實驗分析結果平均值...........................................…………........... 65
表4-3-4 HRT=7.4天實驗分析結果平均值....................................………………........66
表4-3-5 試驗期間各水力停留時間之環境因子平均值……………………….…….72
表4-3-6 HRT=4天實驗分析結果平均值........................................…………….......... 72
表4-3-7 HRT=6天實驗分析結果平均值....................................…………………...... 73
表4-3-8 HRT=8天實驗分析結果平均值................................…………………….......73
表4-3-9 試程一、二中不同HRT下對無機氮的去除比較結果……………………79
表4-3-10 試程一、二中不同HRT下對正磷酸鹽的去除比較結果………………….79
表4-3-11 在不同HRT下各種植物對無機氮之單位面積每天去除量比較表……….80
表4-3-12 在不同HRT下各種植物對正磷酸鹽之單位面積每天去除量比較表….…80
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