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研究生:曾文曦
研究生(外文):Wen-Hsi Tsen
論文名稱:論歐維德《變形記》內的變性主義
論文名稱(外文):Transsexuality in Ovid''s Metamorphoses
指導教授:宋美璍宋美璍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mei-Hwa Sung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:英文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:變性傾向變性人歐維德凱妮絲伊琵絲強暴女同性戀主義男同性傾向
外文關鍵詞:TranssexualityTranssexualOvidCaenisIphisRapeLesbianismHomosexuality
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論文提要內容: 此學術研究主要在探討歐維德變形記內兩位女變男變性人凱妮絲(Caenis)和依琵絲(Iphis)的神話故事。 歐維德變形記內所描述的古希臘社會, 不僅是一個父權極制、 也是一個男性霸權的社會, 凱妮絲和依琵絲, 一個為躲避男性的性侵害; 一個為追求個人情慾自由, 不惜以變性為手段達成目的。 歐維德變形記內所記載的凱妮絲, 是男性慾望的受害者。 凱妮絲遭受希臘海神涅普頓(Neptune)的性侵犯。 海神涅普頓在侵犯凱妮絲後, 得意洋洋地向她提出一個願望以示補償其人身損失, 凱妮絲冷靜地向她的施暴人涅普頓陳訴被強暴的痛苦, 並說為避免他日再遭受性侵害, 她希望能變成男性。 涅普頓雖訝異於凱妮絲的要求, 然而既然下了承諾, 就再也無法收回, 凱妮絲因此從性侵害受害者變性成男性。 變性後的凱妮絲在與半人半馬Centaurs的戰役中, 因為他由女變男的身份而遭到半人半馬Centaurs的羞辱與謀殺。 歐維德筆下的依琵絲, 在尚未出世之前, 她的父親立格德斯(Ligdus)告知其妻泰麗淑莎(Telethusa), 說女兒只會添麻煩, 所以如果其妻所生孩子為女兒, 立格德斯要將其處死。 泰麗淑莎百般求告, 怎奈立格德斯心意已決, 難以動搖。 泰麗淑莎只好日以繼夜向女神依昔絲(Isis)祈禱, 女神依昔絲現身泰麗淑莎夢中, 指示無論生男生女, 泰麗淑莎都該好好撫養, 不可將它處死。 泰麗淑莎最後產下一女, 為保護女兒, 泰麗淑莎騙其夫所生為男,依琵絲因此被變裝為男性, 以男兒身份撫養長大。 長大後的依琵絲, 愛上兒時女玩伴楊緹(Ianthe), 她的父親立格德斯同時也為她定下與楊緹的親事。 古希臘社會對女性情慾的壓制,讓依琵絲對自己同性戀的傾向強烈地不認同, 由此對自己的性別漸有不滿; 其母泰麗淑莎則日夜憂心女兒的女性身份會在婚禮之夜被揭穿。. 泰麗淑莎在用盡藉口延宕婚期, 無計可施之下, 攜女到女神依昔絲的神廟祭壇前求助, 依昔絲再現神蹟, 將依琵絲變成男性。本論文主要是藉著對歐維德變形記內兩位女變男變性人凱妮絲和依琵絲的神話故事, 探討在男性強權的社會下, 女性遭受壓抑迫害的現象。 從歐維德在西元前一世紀完成他的變形記這幾千年以來, 東西方女性地位或許稍有改進, 但是男性霸權依然普遍存在, 本論文希望可以藉著對過去兩性關係的探討, 促進讀者對現代兩性關係更多的瞭解。
Abstract:
Ovid proves himself the most gifted poet in the literary milieu of Rome in the first century B.C. As a creative poet, Ovid prefers the composition of poems in different styles and forms. His best and only epic poem, the Metamorphoses, presents an extensive range of human experiences and topics. Ovid’s characters in the Metamorphoses are mostly social minors or boundary breakers. The main focus of this thesis is to discuss two characters in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Caenis and Iphis are women who choose transsexualism in an attempt to evade oppression that a male-dominant society places on them and other women.
Caenis is a young woman whose virginity is deprived by Neptune. Neptune, her sex offender, shamelessly expresses that he likes what he has tasted, and offers her a gift. Caenis tells Neptune that rape is so painful and she will not want to suffer from it again. She asks to become a man. Though surprised, Neptune grants Caenis this wish and changes her into a man. Although her sex has been changed, Caenis’ male identity is rejected by the Centaurs, who humiliate and eventually murder her.
One of the key points of this thesis is to show that the ancient Greek males tended to use rape as a means to demonstrate their power over women. In Ovid’s Metamorphoses, there are eighteen accounts of women that are sexually threatened or raped by male offenders. Mortal women who have sexual relationships with male gods, regardless if voluntary or forced, always end poorly.
In the Metamorphoses, Iphis is a young girl who is dressed and raised as a boy by her mother to escape her father’s attempted infanticide. Iphis finds herself in love with Ianthe, a young girl her age. Lesbianism is not allowed in Iphis’ society. Iphis’ homophobia towards lesbianism makes her hate her sexuality and her birth sex. She eventually chooses Transsexualism in order to obtain sexual freedom that is simply not available for women. The different attitudes held by ancient Greek society towards homosexuality and lesbianism is discussed. While male homosexuality is a part of the social practices, lesbianism, if it exists at all, is never publicized. Achilles is used as a counter point to Iphis’ story in this thesis. Achilles is both a transgenderist and also a bisexual man. Compared to him, Iphis, who was born a girl, is deprived of her sexual freedom.
Through the tales of Caenis and Iphis, this thesis provides an understanding of women’s lives and sexual status in 1200 B.C. It aims to show how a highly male-controlled society oppresses its women with strict social rules. Sexually women are constantly confronted with the threat of rape by males, and women are not entitled to sexual freedom. To obtain what they have been deprived, Caenis and Iphis finally choose to transform themselves into men. Yet even with their sex changed, Caenis is still haunted by his/her female past. As the phenomenon of social and sexual oppression of women still exists today, to know the past will help us to better understand the present.
Table of Contents
Introduction………………………………………………………………….1
Chapter 1: Caenis and Iphis: Transgenderism, Homosexuality, Lesbianism, and Transsexualism in Ovid’s Metamorphoses……….24
Chapter 2: Caenis in Ovid’s Metamorphoses...…………………….43
Chapter 3: Iphis in Ovid’s Metamorphoses….………………………71
Conclusion………………………………………………………….......102
Works Cited…………………………………………………………………110
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