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研究生:陳建志
研究生(外文):Chen Chien-chih
論文名稱:波赫士小說的神秘視境
論文名稱(外文):Mystical Visions in Jorge Luis Borges's Fiction
指導教授:林耀福林耀福引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin Yao-fu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:英文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:231
中文關鍵詞:波赫士神秘主義佛教道家印度教西方神秘主義視境靈視後現代
外文關鍵詞:Jorge Luis BorgesMysticismBuddhismTaoismHinduismWestern mysticismvisionspostmodernist
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世界級的拉美作家波赫士,其著名的小說創作多半被當代評家認為是魔幻寫實、後現代書寫的代表;然而其小說與神秘主義的血肉相連,僅有極少數的非主流評家蜻蜓點水,缺乏專論。本論文即以整合的東/西方神秘主義與波赫士小說作比較,發掘波赫士此一較不為人知的重要面向,指出他既可與老莊、禪、印度教、西方神秘家如基督、聖約翰、艾卡爾特(Eckart)等人的悟境相通,其文學表現之獨特創新,卻又截斷眾流,自成一家。在討論波赫士之神秘視境的同時,本論文亦提供其小說的後現代/後解構之解讀,而後再提出神秘主義之銓
釋加以比較、擴充,以求其周延。
論文第一章,說明波赫士神秘悟境的重要性,並定義神秘主義與其文學之特點。第二章則搜尋波赫士小說中是否流露神秘主義傳統的來源,並判定波赫士不但吸收了東、西方的神秘主義知識,而且不囿於過去的傳統,自創其新穎的神秘文學與表達方法。
第三章進入波赫士六個神秘視境中的第一個──「夢」。波赫士視世間如「夢」,有如幻相(maya),但又披露許多神秘啟示可由「夢」傳遞給人,並視「作夢」為一種將無形創造為有形的方法,一種創生(Genesis)原則。
第四章詳述其「一體全然」(vision of unity)之視境,指出波氏既能表現「一花一天國,一沙一世界」的「一即一切」(all in one),又能透徹「神存於世間萬物」的「一切即一」(one in all);因此,小說人物常有身份融解、相互認同、神秘溝通的經驗;許多看似無關的短篇小說亦因此可以互套、互動、交疊創造出無限的可能實相(realities)。
第五章探究其「非二元性」之視境,指出波氏跳脫二元對立,並以似非而是的文學技巧,既以文字構築出神性宇宙的縮影,又點出實相無法從文字中求得。第六章「自我的超越」,指出小說主角率皆經歷過棄俗與抽離,才能解脫憂苦與復仇之念,超越自我,獲致上與天通的了悟。
第七章則探討「宇宙」的視境──波赫士著迷於宇宙之奧秘,認為瞭解宇宙即是瞭解神性(divinity),而又以其文字組成的迷宮來鏡映宇宙的實相,一個內在的,主觀的,精神性的實相。
最後之結論,則指出波氏的神秘視境在西洋文學史、神秘文學史上的重要意義。波氏小說既可以與眾多神秘文學作家(如威廉‧布雷克、美國超越主義諸大家)相互發明,也繼承了自古以來的神秘文學傳統,並以創新的小說文類、技巧與悟境,開創此一神秘文學流派的新局。正如卡爾維諾(Italo Calvino)所言,波赫士是本千禧年的主要文學代表人物,其創作不但為文學指出了新的未來,也為人類的終極關懷揭露了獨特的視境。

Jorge Luis Borges, the renowned Argentine writer, is generally regarded by contemporary critics as a magical realist and postmodernist, but not primarily as a “mystic.” This dissertation, however, aims at exploring the mystical side of Borges by comparing the insights or “visions” found within his fiction with such eastern and western mystical traditions as Taoism, Zen, Hinduism, and the mystical Christianity of Jesus, Saint John and Eckart.
The first chapter defines mysticism and the characteristics of mystical literature, and explains the importance of Borges’s mystical visions. The second chapter searches for the origin of Borges’s visions in mystical traditions, and judges that Borges has not only absorbed the essential knowledge of both eastern and western mystical traditions but also invented his own unprecedented style of mystical writing.
The third chapter then goes into Borges’s first vision─the vision of (the) Dream. The author views the world as a dream, a part of the illusory world of maya, but often also shows how dreams can bring us revelations. Furthermore, “dreaming” can be a way of creation, a principle of “genesis.” Chapter four explores this author’s vision of unity. Borges combines two mystical (“all in One”) insights: a tiny thing can contain the whole universe, and all is (in) God. Therefore the identities of his protagonists are often lost or blurred, mixed up with one another in a mystical “communication.” Likewise, many of his stories can contain and interact with other stories within this larger context, creating infinite possible realities.
Chapter five, “The Non-Dualistic Vision,” discusses Borges’s transcendence of (beyond) dualism. His paradoxical language constructs the model of a divine universe, but at the same time implies that one can never attain “reality” in objective knowledge or words. “The Vision of Non-Ego,” chapter six, shows how Borges’s protagonists may go through stages of personal renunciation and detachment to get rid of their thoughts of revenge, to transcend the ego and attain communion with the divine. The seventh chapter discusses Borges’s vision of the universe. In his idea the universe is a synonym of/for divinity, and “each piece of his work contains a mode of the universe.” That is, the labyrinth of his words serves to mirror the universe as an inner, subjective and spiritual reality.
The conclusion affirms the significance of Borge’s visions in terms of both western and mystical literature. Borges, an essential literary figure for this millenium in Italo Calvino’s term, not only inherits the ancient tradition of mystical writing but also opens a new space by bringing to this genre new techniques and fresh insights.
Contents
Chapter One ……………………………………………………………….1
The Mystical Borges: an Introduction
Chapter Two ……………………………………………………………..26
Sources of Borges’s Mystical Thinking
Chapter Three ……………………………………………………………40
The Dream Vision
Chapter Four …………………………………………………………….80
The Vision of Unity
Chapter Five ………………………………………………………..….111
The Non-Dualistic Vision
Chapter Six ……………………………………………………………149
The Non-Ego Vision
Chapter Seven …………………………………………………………178
The Vision of the Universe
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………218
Works Cited …………………………………………………………..226

WORKS CITED
1. Primary Sources
Borges, Jorge Luis. The Aleph and Other Stories, 1933-1939. Trans. Norman
Thomas di Giovanni. London: Jonathan Cape, 1971.
___. The Book of Sand. Trans. Norman Thomas de Giovanni and Alistair Red.
New York: E. P. Dutton, 1976.
___. Borges: A Reader. Ed. Emir Rodriguez Monegal and Alastair Reid. New
York: Elsevier-Dutton, 1981.
___. Dicusssion. Trans. Norman Thomas di Giovanni. New York: E. P. Dutton,
1971.
___. Dreamtigers. Trans. Bildred Boyer and Harold Morland. Austin: U of Texas
P, 1993.
___. Ficciones. Ed. Anthony Kerrugan, with various translators. New York:
Grove, 1962.
___. Labyrinths: Selected Stories and Other Writings. Ed. Donald A. Yates and
James E. Irby. New York: New Directions, 1964.
___. Other Inquisitions. Trans. Ruth L. C. Simms. New York: Washington Square
Press, 1966.
___. A Personal Anthology. Ed. Anthony Kerrigan. New York: Grove, 1967
___. In Praise of Darkness. Trans. Norman Thomas di Giovanni. New York: E. P.
Dutton, 1969.
___. Seven Nights. Trans. Elliot Weinberger. New York: New Direction Pub.,
1980.
II. Secondary Sources
A. Works Dealing with Borges
Alazraki, Jaime. Jorge Luis Borges. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969.
___. “Oxymoronic Structure in Borges’s Essays.” The Cardinal Points of Borges.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. 47-53
Barrenechea, Anna Maria. Borges, the Labyrinth Maker. Trans. Robert Lima. New
York: New York University Press, 1965.
Bell-Villada, Gene H. Borges and His Fiction: a Guide to His Mind and Art.
Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1941.
Calvino, Italo. Six Memos for the Next Millenium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1988.
Childress, Mark and Charles C. McNair. “The Dark Riddle of Jorges Borges, ”
Saturday Review 9 (March/April 1983).
Christ, Ronald. The Narrow Act: Borges’ Art of Allusion. New York: New York
University Press, 1969.
Di Givobanni, N.T., trans., “Preface to the 1923 edition of Ferver de Buenos Aires.”
Jorge Luis Borges Selected Poems 1923-1967. Marmondsworth: Penguin, 1972
Garayalde, Giovanni de. Sources and Illumination. London: The Octagon Press,
1978.
Jurado, Alicia. Genio y Figura de Jorges Luis Borges. Buenos Aires: Editorial
University Press of Buenos Aires, 1964.
McMurray, Geroge R. Jorge Luis Borges. New York: Ungar, 1980
Thomas, Edmund J. and Miller, Eugene G. Writers and Philosophers: A Source
Book of Philosophical Influence on Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood
Press, 1990
B. Works Dealing with Mysticism
Buddha; Hui-Neng. The Diamond Sutra and the Sutra of Hui-Neng. Trans. A. F.
Price & Wong Mou-Lam. Boston: Shambhala, 1990.
Carpenter, Frederic Ives. Emerson and Asia. New York: Haskell House, 1930.
Chuang Tzu. The Sayings of Chuang Chou. Trans. James R. Ware. Taipei:
Confucius, 1970.
Emerson, Edward Waldo, ed. The Complete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson in12
Volumes. Boston: Huoughton Mifflin, 1903-4.
Ferguson, Marilyn. The Aquarian Conspiracy: Personal and Social Transformation
in the 1980s. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc., 1987.
Goldwin, Malcolm. The Lucid Dreamer: a Waking Guide for the Traveler between
Worlds. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.
Good News Bible. New York: American Bible Society, 1996
Hanh, T.N., A. Laity and A.H. Nguyen. The Diamond that Cuts Through Illusions -- Commentaries on the Prajnapramita Diamond Sutra. Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1992.
Happold, F. C. Mysticism: A Study and an Anthology. New York: Penguin, 1963.
Hui-Non, The Platform Sutra. Trans. Wing-Tsit Chan. New York: St. John’s
University Press, 1963.
Huxley, Aldous. The Doors of Perception, and Heaven and Hell. New
York :Harper & Row, 1963.
Lao Tzu. Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching. Trans. John C. H. Wu. New York: St. John’s
University Press, 1961.
Lieh Tzu. The Book of Lieh Tzu. Trans. A. C. Graham. London: Butler &
Tanner, 1960.
Otto, Rudolf. Mysticism East and West. Trans. Bertha L. Bracey and Richenda C.
Rayne. New York: Meridian Books, 1957.
Stace W. T. Teaching of the Mystics. New York: New American Library, 1960.
Suzuki, D. T. Essays on Zen Buddhism,First Series. New York: Grove, 1961.
Underhill, Evelyn. Mysticism: A Study in the Nature and Development of Man’s
Spiritual Consciousness,11th ed. London: Methuen, 1926.
Watts, Allen W. The Way of Zen. New York: Pantheon, 1963.
Upanishads. Trans. Olivelle Patrick. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Wihelm, Rechard, trans. Tao Te Ching: The Book of Meaning and Life. Arkana:
London, 1985.

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