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研究生:戴秋香
研究生(外文):Chiu-shiang Tai
論文名稱:阿道、李奧波《沙郡曆誌》裡的生態意識
論文名稱(外文):Ecological Consciousness in Aldo Leopold’s A Sand County Almanac
指導教授:林耀福林耀福引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yao-fu Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:英文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:自然生態意識土地倫理阿道李奧波
外文關鍵詞:natureecological consciousnessland ethicAldo Leopold
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生態論述源自於當前的生態危機,主要對日益惡化的環境問題之前因後果加以探討與批判,並提供可行之因應之道。而其中深層生態學(Deep Ecology)最受矚目。深層生態學尋求的是從「文明」社會回歸到「野化」的世界,讓自然界一切生命有其生存及發展的可能性,而尋求人和週遭環境重新建立一種共生共榮的關係。 當代的生態運動力圖去培養深層的生態意識(Deep Ecological Consciousness),以萬物眾生為中心考量;與當前以人類為中心、主宰一切的經濟活動與價值觀背道而馳。生態論述在在指出科技與經濟的進步,不一定增進人類的幸福。為了幸福,人類沒有節制的剝削與破壞自然的資源與平衡。太自由,導致人類與眾生萬物生存的危機。我們只有一個地球,因此我們現在要登高疾呼的是建立革命性的環境意識,約束人類對環境無節制的剝削與取用,積極遵守環境資源使用的明確法則。 而對人類自由的約束與促進責任心的原動力,則仰賴生態意識的修養。阿道‧李奧波(Aldo Leopold)一生的事蹟與其意境生動寫實、論點簡明中肯之著作《沙郡曆誌》(A Sand County Almanac),乃生態意識之最佳具現。李氏一生思考與智慧的結晶-土地倫理-指出眾生平等,人只是土地國度裡的居民,只是大自然這大家族中的一份子。人類非萬物的主宰,是大自然這個大我裡的小我(self in Self)。因此,改變以經濟與科技導向的價值觀與生活型態、以土地倫理為人類行動的依據、學習以愛及尊敬來對待土地國度裡的其他居民,讓人類與自然皆能繼續生存與永續發展,讓人類的文化能在自然裡生根、開花、結果。 生態意識在尋求認知真實的自我,重新調整人類與自然的關係,在自然裡再次生根,減少對自然的干涉與衝擊。從事責任性的行為,尋求事實的真理。回歸自然的路途雖遙遠,但生態意識卻能使人類勇敢的踏出回家的第一步。
Ecological discourse, largely a product of current ecological crisis, treats causes and consequences of environmental problems, and attempts to provide alternative solutions. In this sense, it has practical uses that are grounded in a sensibility that we may call ecological consciousness.
Ecological consciousness provides such a grounding for a new world, a harmonious man-nature coexistence, where our problems of environmental crisis may hopefully be resolved. Current ecological discourses aim to cultivate a deep rather than shallow ecological consciousness, the essence of Deep Ecology. It is a process of realizing man’s real self and his relation with nature. It is ecocentric rather than anthropocentric, anti-domination rather than pro-domination.
The discussions on ecological consciousness inevitably brings up the prophetic insight of Leopold who, even before Rachel Carson lamented the “silent spring,” had defended the value of “wild things” and promoted a consciousness that is really ecocentric. In his outstanding work, A Sand County Almanac, Leopold advocates a harmonious relationship between man and nature, illustrated by his own life on his sand county farm. This is a life that fleshes out his injunction to “think like a mountain,” and his concept of a Land Ethic.
Leopold’s land ethic is an environmental ethic that is based on biotic community. The land ethic affirms nature’s right to continued existence in a natural state. Moreover, for man with intellect and consciousness, when he uses and disturbs nature, the individual especially should take responsibility to preserve the health of the land. However, the change and performance lies in deeper ecological consciousness.
The consistency of words and deeds that characterizes his environmental classic manifests a genuine ecological consciousness. In this thesis, I focus on Leopold’s ecological consciousness as a form of deep ecology, his example as an effective form of environmental education, his literary skills and quality as a nature writer, and the land ethic as a practical environmental ethic. It is hoped that this thesis will help to persuade people to be more ecologically aware, to respect and love the land which gives us life and sustenance.
Table of Contents
Chapter One Introduction…………………………………………………1
Chapter Two Environmental Education……………………………………13
Chapter Three The Making of A Sand County Almanac…………………….32
Chapter Four The Land Ethic……………………………………………….52
Chapter Five Conclusion……………………………………………………73
Works Cited………………………………………………………………………..83
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