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研究生:曾淑惠
研究生(外文):Shu-huey Tseng
論文名稱:視覺提示在聽力理解成效之研究:以淡江統計系新生為例
論文名稱(外文):On Visual Cues for Listening Comprehension: A Case Study of Freshman Statics Majors at Tamkang University
指導教授:王藹玲王藹玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ai-ling Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:英文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:視覺提示聽力理解
外文關鍵詞:visual cueslistening comprehension
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聽說教學法以快速讓學生熟悉英文句型與對話模式的特點,在台灣盛行了數十載。 近年來,全民英檢與TOEIC在英文聽力測驗中所用的圖片結合聽力測驗方式,引起語言教師們對圖片視覺提示效果的關注與廣泛用於英文聽講教學中。
本實驗探討圖片在低成就學生英文聽力理解上的輔助成效。 為求其受試者之先備知識與學習環境相似,這九十八位受試者皆取自於相同科系,並於實驗一開始接受前測,成績顯示他們皆具相同之英文能力。 這群受試者分別分配至三個不同組別,除上課教授方式不同外,其餘變數皆在控制中,如相同教材、考試題目與相同授課教師。 實驗組C單純使用圖片來協助英文聽力理解,另一實驗組B則除圖片外也有文字教材,而控制組A則以正常方式上課。 經過一年實驗後,分別以T test與 one-way ANOVA統計方法檢測受試者前測、兩次全民英檢中級考試與後測成績,在三個不同組別中的英文聽力理解學習進步成效為何? 並對受試者在實驗前所做之學習性向調查與實驗後所做之問卷,加以分析討論。
本研究結果顯示,圖片的確促進受試者聽力理解與學習成效,尤以圖片與文字相輔之組別最明顯,而單獨以圖片當作視覺提示的組別次之。 圖片使用時機以播放錄音帶之前與在播放錄音帶進行中最受肯定,而圖片數量與種類則以一至三張/種最為接受。 實驗結果建議教師們應選擇富含意義與影像圖片的聽力教材,除吸引學生專注學習外,學生的英文聽力理解程度也會比較高。
Audiolingual Method (ALM) has been welcomed for decades by language instructors in Taiwan to train learners of English as Foreign Language (EFL) to be familiar with dialogues and sentence patterns rapidly. The developments of General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) and Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) have also combined pictorial aids as visual cues and aural materials in language listening drills and tests. This brought about language teachers’ concern about the effects of visual aids used on English listening comprehension.
This study aimed at exploring the effects of pictorial aids as visual cues on improving low-achieving learners’ English language listening comprehension. Ninety-eight subjects from the Statistics department were pretested to make sure they had the similar entry level before the treatment. These subjects were then allocated into three groups and were treated in different methods: one experimental group in fully immersion in pictorial aids, another experimental group in both pictorial aids and written texts, and the control group in normal treatments which played tapes without the emphasis of visual aids during the listening comprehension instruction. Data were collected and analyzed from the four achievement tests in listening, subjects’ learning preference survey, and a questionnaire. The T test and the one-way ANOVA were separately utilized to examine the gain scores of two pairs of the pretests and the posttests within groups and among groups.
The results showed that the uses of pictorial aids as visual cues indeed enhanced the subjects’ listening comprehension in English. Moreover, according to the subjects’ responses to the questionnaire, they preferred to use pictorial aids before and during listening to aural texts rather than after the aural texts. The most appropriate numbers and types of pictorial aids should be between one and three as suggested by the subjects. Plus, the aural materials with meaningful contents and with pictorial aids might appeal to the subjects and stimulate their motivation to learn. Pictorial aids as well as written texts used during English listening comprehension instruction benefited the subjects most.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………... i
CHINESE ABSTRACT……………………………………….………………... ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………………. iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………..... ix
LIST OF TABLES ……………………………………………………………... xii
LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………………….. xiii
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCITON 1
1.1 Background …………………………………………….…………… 1
1.1.1 General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) ……………………... 3
1.1.2 Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) ….… 4
1.2 Motivation …………………………………………………………... 5
1.3 Printed Pictures ……………………………………………………... 7
1.3.1 Pictures Used …………………………………………………… 7
1.3.2 Considerations to Use Pictures ……………….………………… 8
1.4 Purpose of the Study ………………………………………………… 9
1.5 Research Questions …………………………………………………. 9
1.6 Definition of Terms …………………………………………………. 10
1.7 Significance of the Study …………………………………………… 10
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Listening …………………………………………………………….. 11
2.1.1 Importance of Listening ………………………………………... 11
2.1.2 Three Perspectives on Listening ………………………………... 12
2.1.3 Bottom-up and Top-down Processing ………………………….. 13
2.2 Listening Inputs ……………………………………………………... 14
2.2.1 Importance of Listening Inputs ………………………………… 14
2.2.2 Enough Listening Inputs ……………………………………….. 15
2.2.3 Comprehensible Listening Inputs ………….……….………….. 15
2.3 Listening Comprehension …………………………………………... 16
2.3.1 Listening Comprehension Difficulties and Possible Resolution .. 16
2.3.2 Solution to Improve Listening Comprehension ………………... 17
2.4 Auditory Short-term Memory ……………………………………….. 18
2.5 Brain Lateralization …………………………………………………. 19
2.6 Learning Styles ……………………………………………………… 20
2.7 Visual Aids …………………………………………..……………… 22
III. METHODOLOGY
3.1 Subjects ……………………………………………………………... 25
3.1.1 Subjects’ Background…………………………………………... 25
3.1.2 Subjects’ Entry Level …………………………………………... 27
3.2 Research Questions …………………………………………………. 29
3.3 Materials Used in Instructional Process and in Testing …………….. 29
3.4 Instrument …………………………………………………………… 32
3.5 Statistic Methods ……………………………………………………. 34
3.6 Variables …………………………………………………………….. 35
3.7 Procedure ……………………………………………………………. 36
3.8 Data Collection and Analysis ……………………………………….. 37
IV. RESULTS
4.1 Results of Questionnaire Survey ……………………………………. 38
4.1.1 The Subjects’ Perspectives to Comprehension Aural Texts …..... 38
4.1.2 Appropriate Time to Use Pictures and Appropriate Number of Pictures Used in Instruction …………………………………....
43
4.1.3 Types and Functions of Pictures ………………………………... 45
4.1.4 Detailed Questions ……………..………………………………. 48
4.2 Subjects’ Learning Preference: Visual or Aural …………………….. 52
4.3 T test ………………………………………………………………… 53
4.3.1 T test of the Subjects of Different Classes in the Pretest and the Posttest …………………………………………………………
53
4.3.2 T test of the Subjects of Different Classes in GEPT 1 & GEPT 2 55
4.4 One-way ANOVA …………………………………………………… 55
V. DISCUSSION
5.1 Research Questions …………………………………………………. 58
5.2 Research Question 1 ……………………………...…………………. 58
5.3 Research Question 2 ……………………………………………...…. 59
5.4 Research Question 3 ………………………………………………… 60
5.5 Research Question 4 ………………………………………………… 61
5.6 Research Question 5 ………………………………………………… 62
5.7 Research Question 6 ………………...………………………………. 62
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