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研究生:高愷璜
研究生(外文):Kai-huang Kao
論文名稱:台灣學習者英文寫作中純單數名詞之研究
論文名稱(外文):On Bare Singulars in Taiwan Learners'' English Writing
指導教授:衛友賢衛友賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):David Wible
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:英文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:純單數名詞中介語言語意錯誤學習者語料庫可數名詞
外文關鍵詞:bare singularinterlanguagesemantic errorslearner corpuscountable noun
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本研究主要探討台灣學習者英文寫作中純單數名詞的錯誤(例如:*I love dog because they are cute and honest.)。多數探討這類型錯誤的研究都將這種錯誤歸因於學習者將可數名詞視為不可數名詞或者母語缺乏冠詞的結果。然而,在利用「學習者語料庫」(English TLC)搜尋學習者純單數名詞的錯誤之後,發現即使學習者擁有名詞可數性的知識和冠詞運用的能力,學習者仍然可能犯純單數名詞的錯誤。因此,本研究論文的主要目的為探討是否學習者在其純單數名詞的使用上有語意上的假設。研究結果顯示,學習者純單數名詞的錯誤導因於學習者對純單數名詞使用上的錯誤假設:學習者認為可以用純單數名詞來表達泛指(generics)。意即學習者犯此錯誤的原因不單只是在於缺乏完整的文法觀念,而更在於其語意在使用上的假設。此外,本論文根據此研究結果,提出教師在反饋這類型錯誤時所應注意的事項和建議。
This thesis is a study of a particular kind of error commonly found in English of learners in Taiwan referred to in this thesis as bare singular errors (BSEs). This error type is illustrated in the underlined noun in *I love dog because they are cute and honest. Three purposes of the study are: (1) to uncover patterns in learners’ bare singular errors; (2) to clarify whether the bare singular error is the result of language transfer or overgeneralization or some other source; (3) to offer guidelines for an instructional remedy for the bare singular error according to the results of (1) and (2).
Researchers as well as teachers have long assumed that BSEs are due either to learners’ lack of the knowledge of English nouns’ countability or to their lack of grammatical knowledge that countable nouns must either have a determiner or appear in plural form. The investigation finds, however, that many learners who have both sorts of knowledge still produce bare singulars and cannot recognize them as errors. The hypothesis proposed to explain this phenomenon is that these learners have a generalization in their interlanguage concerning the use of English nouns: namely, bare singulars can be used in expressing generics. A corpus of learner English is utilized to extract data and to detect patterns in learners’ bare singular errors. Comparisons with Chinese bare nouns and English noun phrases are made and a pilot test is reported which confirms the main hypothesis that learners assume bare singulars can be used in expressing generics. On the basis of these research results, some guidelines on giving feedback to errors of this kind are suggested.
Table of Contents
CHINESE ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………..i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………….ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………..iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………. iv
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………...vii
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………...ix
CHAPTER
1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Motivation………………………………………………………………….1
1.2 Scope and Purposes………………………………………………………...2
1.3 Background…………………………………………………………………3
1.3.1 Bare Nouns and Bare Singular Errors……………………………3
1.3.2 Interlanguage……………………………………………………..4
1.4 Organization of the Thesis………………………………………………….6
2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: LINGUISTIC PROPERTIES AND ARTICLE USE IN LEARNER ENGISH…………………………………………8
2.1 Linguistic Background……………………………………………………...9
2.1.1 Noun Phrases in English…………………………………………9
2.1.1.1 Classification of English Nouns………………………….10
2.1.1.2 Constituents of the Noun Phrase in English……………...12
2.1.1.3 English Bare Noun Phrases & Bare Singular Errors……..15
2.1.2 The Noun Phrase in Chinese……………………………………17
2.1.2.1 Chinese Nouns……………………………………………18
2.1.2.2 Noun Phrase Constituents in Chinese……………………18
2.1.2.3 Chinese Bare Nouns……………………………………...22
2.2 Previous Research on Article Errors of Taiwan Learners…………………22
2.3 Summary of Chapter 2…………………………………………………….28
3 CORPUS DATA AND ANALYSIS……………………………………………...29
3.1 The Data Source…………………………………………………………...29
3.1.1 Writing Environment……………………………………………30
3.1.2 English Taiwan Learner Corpus (English TLC)………………...33
3.2 The Error Data: Extraction of Bare Singulars……………………………..35
3.2.1 By Teacher Comments………………………………………….36
3.2.2 By Keyword Search…………………………………………….37
3.3 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………...41
3.3.1 Typology of Bare Singular Errors……………………………....41
3.3.1.1 Generic…………………………………………………...43
3.3.1.2 Indefinites………………………………………………..44
3.3.1.3 Definites………………………………………………….44
3.3.2 Micro Analysis………………………………………………….45
3.4 Summary of Chapter 3…………………………………………………….47
4 MORE ANALYSIS OF THE BARE ISNGULAR ERRORS…………………...48
4.1 Comparisons of English Noun Phrases and Chinese Bare Nouns………...48
4.1.1 The Distribution of English Nouns …………………………….49
4.1.2 Detailed Exploration……………………………………………53
4.1.3 The Distribution of Chinese Bare Nouns ………………………55
4.1.4 A Comparison Between Chinese Bare Nouns and English Bare Singulars ………………………………………………………..58
4.1.5 Language Transfer or Overgeneralization………………………62
4.2 Summary of Chapter 4…………………………………………………….64
5 ELICITED DATA AND ANALYSIS………………………………..…………...65
5.1 Data Elicitation…………………………………………………………….65
5.1.1 Subjects…………………………………………………………66
5.1.2 Materials and Procedures……………………………………….67
5.1.3 Data Analysis Procedure………………………………………..68
5.2 Results and Discussion…………………………………………………….69
5.2.1 Descriptive Statistics……………………………………………69
5.2.2 T-test for Generic and Referential Bare Singular Errors
in Test 1…………………………………………………………71
5.2.3 Pearson Correlation Coefficient of Test 1 and Test 2…………..73
5.3 Summary of Chapter 5…………………………………………………….74
6 ON DESIGNING A TUTORIAL………………………………………………..75
6.1 The Design of The Tutorial………………………………………………..78
6.2 The Tutorial………………………………………………………………..82
6.3 Conclusion of the Thesis…………………………………………………..86
BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………89
APPENDIX A………………………………………………………………………..91
APPENDIX B………………………………………………………………………..95
APPENDIX C………………………………………………………………………..98
APPENDIX D……………………………………………………………………....101
APPENDIX E……………………………………………………………………….102
List of Tables
Table: 3-1 Extracted Instances From Teachers’ Comments………………………….37
Table 3-2: The Bare Singulars in Teacher Comment Search………………………...38
Table 3-3: More Bare Singulars by KWIC Search…………………………………...39
Table 3-4: More Bare Singulars by Triggered Word Search…………………………40
Table 3-5: Bare Singulars in Total……………………………………………………41
Table 3-6: The Result of the Typology of English Bare Singulars…………………...46
Table 4-1: Semantic Distributions of English Noun Phrases………………………...50
Table 4-2: The Semantic Distributions of the EBS and the ENP…………………….50
Table 4-3: Semantic Distributions of English Bare Nouns…………………………..51
Table 4-4: The Semantic Distributions of the BSE and the EBN……………………52
Table 4-5: The Semantic Distributions of the BSE and the ENP and the EBN……...52
Table 4-6: Semantic Distributions of Chinese Bare Nouns……….………………….57
Table 4-7: Positional Distributions of Chinese Bare Nouns………………………….58
Table 4-8: Positional Distributions of Bare Singular Errors…………………………59
Table 4-9: The Semantic Distributions of the CBN and the BSE……………………60
Table 4-10: Semantic and Positional Distributions of ESEs and CBNs……………...61
Table 5-1: The Result of Test 1………………………………………………………70
Table 5-2: The Result of Test 2………………………………………………………71
Table 5-3: The Result of The T-test………………………………………………….72
Table 5-4: Pearson Correlation Coefficient of Test 1 and Test 2……………………..73
List of Figures
Figure 2-1: Baker’s Classification of Nouns…………………………………………11
Figure 2-2: The Basic Constituents of A Noun Phrase………………………………14
Figure 2-3: An NP of a Bare Mass Noun…………………………………………….15
Figure 2-4: An NP of a Bare Count Noun……………………………………………15
Figure 3-1: Teacher’s Comment Bank……………………………………………….31
Figure 3-2: The Interface of the Comment Search…………………………………...32
Figure 3-3: The Result of the Comment Search……………………………………...33
Figure 3-4: The Interface of Keyword Search (KWIC search)………………………34
Figure 3-5: The Result of Keyword Search (KWIC search)…………………………35
Figure 6-1: The Flow of The Tutorial………………………………………………..81
Figure 6-2: A Bare Singular Error in An Essay……………………………………...82
Figure 6-3: The Comment of Error of Countable noun………………………………82
Figure 6-4: Countability judgment (Question 1)……………………………………..83
Figure 6-5: The Response of The Correct Countability Judgment…………………..83
Figure 6-6: Judgment of The Semantics of The Noun in The Essay………………...84
Figure 6-7: The Response of The Incorrect Countability Judgment…………………84
Figure 6-8: Suggestion 1 (For Generic Expressions)………………………………...85
Figure 6-9: Suggestion 2 (For Referential Expressions)……………………………..85
Figure 6-10: More Grammar on The Countable NP………………………………
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