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研究生:歐宜佩
研究生(外文):Ou Yi-Pey
論文名稱:廠商生產力與規模變動之決定因素─台灣電子業與紡織業之實證
論文名稱(外文):The Determinants of Productivity and Size Dynamics─An empirical study of Tawanese Electronic and Textile Industries.
指導教授:劉 孟 俊胡 名 雯
指導教授(外文):Meng-Chun LiuMing-Wen Hu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:產業經濟學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:生產力變動廠商成長
外文關鍵詞:Productivity Dynamicscale growth
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大企業與中小企業以合作互補的方式共存於經濟體系中。大企業以其規模優勢,而中小企業以靈活應變的特點,各自維持其生存;此顯示不同規模的企業會有不同的行為表現。然而廠商追求永續成長的過程中,不僅追求廠商規模之擴大,且要提昇其生產力。故本文主要目的是分析不同規模廠商的行為表現,對其廠商規模成長率與生產力變動率之影響。
文中採用1986、1991及1996年度的「臺閩地區工商及服務業普查資料」,以紡織業與電子業為研究對象。模型設定上,第一階段使用Bivatiate Probit函數矯正廠商存活與規模選擇的樣本偏誤問題,第二階段設立廠商規模成長與生產力變動之聯立方程式模型,並且採用Heckman二階段估計法來估計。
實證結果發現,在廠商規模成長部分,存活篩選所產生的樣本選擇性偏誤較顯著,而規模篩選則否。此二產業中,只要期初生產力越高、資本密集度越高、以及出口密集度變動高的企業會有較高的成長率。在大型企業中,規模與其成長率呈獨立關係,支持Gibrat (1931)法則;而廠齡對成長率的影響不明顯,不支持Jovanovic (1982)的理論。而在中小型企業中,規模與其成長率呈負向關係,無法驗證Gibrat (1931) 法則;而廠齡與其成長率亦呈負向關係,支持Jovanovic (1982)的理論。
生產力變動率部分,廠商存活與規模選擇所產生的樣本偏誤之現象較不明顯。另二產業中發現,期初生產力、資本密集度及資本深化程度越低,其生產力成長率就會越大。廠商規模、廠齡對生產力變動率之影響,因企業規模大小之差異而不同。中小型企業新進入出口市場後,其相對於非出口企業會有較高的生產力成長率,而大型企業則無此現象。企業若能持續性的停留於出口市場,其相對於非出口企業會有較高的生產力成長率,此說明出口市場的學習效果 (Learning by export) 不會有遞減的現象。
The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of the productivity dynamic and scale growth of enterprises of different size in Taiwan’s electronic and textile industry. The censuses data sets used in this research come from the Taiwan-Fukien area of the Republic of China from 1986 to 1996. The empirical model described here is a sample selection model. We then estimate a Bivatiate Probit to investigate firm size and firm survival decisions, and use those results to account for sample selections when estimation a simultaneous system of the productivity dynamic and scale growth of enterprises of different size..
For the two industries, We find that firm growth stems from both the initial productivity level and subsequent productivity growth. The empirical evidence provided in this paper suggests that firms with higher capital intensity and export intensity growth have higher growth rates. For large enterprises, the empirical evidence demonstrates that firm size is independent to growth, supporting Gibrat’s law. And firm age is also independent to firm growth, rejecting Jovanovic’s (1982) prediction. For the small and medium scaled enterprises, Gibrat’s law is rejected, while the negative relationship between plant age and plant growth predicted by Jovanovic is found to hold.
We also find that firm with higher initial productivity level、capital intensity and capital deepening have lower productivity growth rates. For the two industries, firm size and age cause different influence in the firms of different size for productivity growth rates. For small and medium scaled enterprises, productivity growth rates of new entrants are significant higher than those of non-exporters, but large enterprises are not. In addition, we also find that productivity growth rates of continuing exporters are significant higher than that those of non-exporters, we proved the effect of learning by export is not decreasing in the export market.
目 錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究內容 2
第三節 本文架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 廠商成長的決定因素 5
第二節 生產力變動的決定因素 14
第三章 實證模型與資料 21
第一節 實證模型的建立 21
第二節 生產力的衡量 31
第三節 資料來源與樣本選取 32
第四節 樣本基本統計量之分析 36
第四章 實證結果 41
第一節 電子業廠商成長率與生產力變動率的實證結果 41
第二節 紡織業廠商成長率與生產力變動率的實證結果 53
第三節 電子業與紡織業廠商實證結果之比較 59
第五章 結論 63
第一節 主要發現 63
第二節 後續研究之建議 64
參考文獻 66
附錄 71
附錄一:樣本選擇偏模型 71
附錄二:電子業與紡織業的行業分類表 73
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