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研究生:陳威憲
研究生(外文):Chen Wei-Hsien
論文名稱:歐洲聯盟共同外交與安全政策在東擴下的發展
論文名稱(外文):The Development of EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy under the Process of EU Eastern Enlargement
指導教授:鄒忠科鄒忠科引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzou Chong-Ko
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:歐洲研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:183
中文關鍵詞:歐洲聯盟共同外交與安全政策歐洲共同安全與防衛政策快速反應部隊歐盟擴大
外文關鍵詞:European Unoin (EU)Common Foreign and Security Policy(CFSP)UnionEuropean Common Security and Defence Policy(ESDP)Rapid Reaction Force(RRF)EU Enlargement
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自五○年代在煤鋼共同體時代的安全合作開始,歷經歐洲防衛共同體的失敗、 在外交政策領域合作的歐洲政治合作、以及歐洲單一法後的法制化時期,直到一九九三年十一月一日馬斯垂克條約正式生效,標誌歐盟共同外交暨安全政策正式形成。歐盟的共同外交與安全政策可以說是歐洲政治整合發展的自然結果。科索沃戰後,歐盟明顯的意識到,只專注推行歐洲共同貨幣,而忽略共同安全與防衛政策是行不通的,在赫爾辛基高峰會後,歐盟決定了歐洲共同安全與防衛政策的發展,希望在沒有北約參與的情況下,執行彼得斯堡任務以及在歐洲內的危機管理。
歐盟防衛政策發展的目標是加強軍事干預能力,並建立獨立的軍事政策,以成為歐洲集體安全的主導力量,所以歐盟向中東歐地區進行的第五次擴大,在本質上也是其集體安全內涵的擴大。本論文的目的在於分析歐盟的共同外交與安全政策,瞭解歐盟透過共同外交與安全政策和中東歐國家相互連結的過程,以及第五次擴大背後的安全考量,進一步發現歐盟東擴後對共同外交與安全政策的影響。
本論文共分五章,論述架構如下:
第一章 緒論
第二章 共同外交與安全政策的發展概述
第三章 共同外交與安全政策在歐盟擴大過程中的應用
第四章 東擴對共同外交與安全政策的影響
第五章 結論
From the beginning of security cooperation in the period of European Coal and Steel Community in 1950’, through the fail of European Defense Community, cooperation in the field of foreign policy in European Political Cooperation, institutionalization after Single European Act, until the shaping of Common Foreign and Security Policy(CFSP) after Treaty of European Union in 1992, EU’s CFSP is a natural outcome and inevitable result of Europe’s political development. The Kosovo war has been pushing forward the development of EU Common defence, after European Helsinki Summit, EU decide to development European Common Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), the scope of ESDP is limited within the Petersberg task, mainly the crisis management in Europe in which NATO has no intention to be involved.
The goal of EU defence development is strengthening the capacity of military interference and independent military policy in order to hold the leader role of European collective security, so the EU’s fifth enlargement to the Central and Eastern Countries (CEECs) is also the enlargement of the context of collective security. Hence, the purpose of writing this thesis is to analysis the development of CFSP. Having comprehended the process EU make connection with CEECs through CFSP, and the security consideration of the fifth enlargement, we hope the study can find out the affect of EU Eastward Enlargement on the CFSP.
This Thesis is divided into five chapters and the structure is as follows: Chapter I is introduction; Chapter II is a historical analysis of the origin of EU’s CFSP as well as its mechanism of operation, included policy instruments such as joint action, common position, common strategies and declaration, and the decision-making process and mechanism; Chapter III is detailed introduction of the background of EU historical integration, the development and strategies of EU’s fifth enlargement to the CEECs, and the application of CFSP in the process of Eastward Enlargement to achieve the goal of integration; Chapter IV is a commentary of the affects of the EU Eastward Enlargement on the CFSP, include internal and external affects, especially the affect on the relations with other military organization (NATO, WEU, OSCE); Chapter V is conclusion.
目錄
緒論----------------------------------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機與研究目的--------------------------------------------------1
第二節 相關概念闡釋--------------------------------------------------4
第三節 研究範圍與研究架構--------------------------------------------------6
第四節 文獻探討-----------------------------------------------------------------8
第一章 共同外交與安全政策的發展--------------------------13
第一節 共同外交與安全政策的發展沿革----------------------------------13
一、歐洲煤鋼共同體時代的安全合作----------------------------------13
二、歐洲政治合作的發展-------------------------------------------------17
三、從歐洲政治合作到共同外交與安全政策-------------------------21
第二節 共同外交與安全政策的執行方法----------------------------------29
一、一致行動----------------------------------------------------------------30
二、共同立場----------------------------------------------------------------34
三、宣言----------------------------------------------------------------------36
四、共同策略----------------------------------------------------------------37
第三節 總體決策程序和執行機構-------------------------------------------41
一、決策程序----------------------------------------------------------------41
二、執行機構----------------------------------------------------------------44
第二章 共同外交與安全政策在歐盟擴大過程中的功能----55
第一節 歐盟整合----------------------------------------------------------------55
一、歐盟整合的過程-------------------------------------------------------55
二、歐盟東擴的進展-------------------------------------------------------59
三、歐盟第五次擴大的相關策略----------------------------------------62
第二節 中東歐國家和共同外交與安全政策的結合----------------------67
一、中東歐國家的安全考量----------------------------------------------67
二、會員關係的聯繫與發展----------------------------------------------71
三、結構關係的建立-------------------------------------------------------76
第三節 合作形式與合作策略-------------------------------------------------80
一、合作形式的內涵-------------------------------------------------------80
二、利用合作策略和歐盟結合-------------------------------------------91
第三章 東擴之後對共同外交與安全政策的變遷-------------95
第一節 內部影響----------------------------------------------------------------95
一、決策機制的調整與適應-----------------------------------------------95
二、會員國在防衛政策上的不同主張-----------------------------------99
三、政府間主義與超國家主義間的消長------------------------------101
四、對歐洲安全暨防衛政策的影響------------------------------------104
第二節 外部影響--------------------------------------------------------------111
一、外交政策對象和外交傳統格局的改變----------------------------112
二、領土爭議和既存的雙邊爭議---------------------------------------116
三、邊界改變和少數族群的待遇問題----------------------------------119
四、和俄羅斯的關係變化------------------------------------------------124
五、和土耳其的關係發展------------------------------------------------127
第三節 和其他軍事安全組織的關係--------------------------------------130
一、 對北約的影響--------------------------------------------------------130
二、 對西歐聯盟的影響--------------------------------------------------138
三、 對歐安組織的影響--------------------------------------------------144
四、 和聯合國的關係-----------------------------------------------------149
結論-------------------------------------------------------------------155
參考書目-------------------------------------------------------------161
附錄-------------------------------------------------------------------179
【附錄一】歐洲外交政策與安全合作大事年表--------------------------------179
【附錄二】歐洲統合大事年表-----------------------------------------------------181
【附錄三】共同外交與安全政策決策架構圖-----------------------------------183
論文圖表目錄
【表---1】本論文主要參考文獻摘要-----------------------------------------------9
【表1-1】CFSP在條約第J.3條下主要的一致行動(1993-1997)------------32
【表1-2】歐盟的共同立場----------------------------------------------------------35
【表1-3】二○○二年歐盟任派之特別代表-------------------------------------52
【表2-1】歐盟與中東歐候選國關係----------------------------------------------70
【表2-2】中東歐國家與歐盟聯繫機制表----------------------------------------80
【表2-3】1989-1994各國在聯合國一般大會投票與美國的契合率(%)----89
【表2-4】一九九四年特定議題的投票-------------------------------------------90
【表3-1】尼斯條約之後部長理事會的票數-------------------------------------97
【表3-2】能力承諾會議後歐盟各會員國可提供快速反應部隊之
軍隊與裝備數目表----------------------------------------------------106
【表3-3】一九九九年歐盟國家防衛開支指數表------------------------------108
【表3-4】九○年代歐洲國家軍費開支情況-----------------------------------109
【表3-5】100家大軍工企業銷售情況-------------------------------------------110
【表3-6】中東歐國家與北約簽署「和平伙伴關係」計畫一覽表-----------131
【表3-7】參與西歐聯盟的國家一覽表------------------------------------------141
【表3-8】歐體國家對聯合國維和行動的貢獻---------------------------------151
【表3-9】歐盟國家與歐盟申請國加入聯合國時間表------------------------153
【圖---1】論文架構圖------------------------------------------------------------12
【圖2-1】歐洲統合流程圖----------------------------------------------------------58
【圖3-1】歐盟和北約會員比較圖表--------------------------------------------137
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Phillips, A. L. (2000). Power and influence after the Cold War: Germany in East-Central Europe., Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield.
Riegler, H.(ed.) (2000). Transformation Processes in the Yugoslav Successor States between Marginalization and European Integration. Vienna: Austrian Institute for International Affairs.
Pinder, J. (1991). The European Community and Eastern Europe. London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.
Price, V. C., Landau, A. & Whitman, R.G. (1999) The Enlargement of the European Union: Issues and strategies. London: Routledge.
Regelsberger, E. (1997). Foreign policy of the European Union: from EPC to CFSP and beyond. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Rummel, R. (1992) Toward political union: planning a common foreign and security policy in the European community. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press,.
Smith, A. (2000). The Return to Europe: The Reintegration of Eastern Europe into the European Economy. Houndmills: Macmillan Press Ltd..
Smith, M. A. (2000). Building a bigger Europe: EU and NATO enlargement in comparative perspective. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Soetendorp, B. (1999). Foreign policy in the European Union: theory, history and practice. London: Longman.
Solomon G. B. (1998). The NATO Enlargement Debate, 1990-1997: Blessings of Libetty. Westport: Praeger Publishers.
Spillmann, K. R. & Wenger A.(eds.) (1999). Russia’s Place in Europe/ A Security Debate. New York: Peter Lang.
Spillmann, K. R. & Wenger A.(eds.). (1999). Towards the 21st Century: Trends in Post-Cold War International Security Policy. New York: Peter Lang.
Szayna, T. S. (2001). NATO enlargement, 2000-2015: determinants and implications for defense planning and shaping. Santa Monica: RAND.
Tara, R.(ed.) (1998). National Identities and Ethnic Minorities in Eastern Europe. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Tiersky, R. (1999). Europe Today - National Politics, European Integration, and European Security. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Tonra, B. (2001). The Europeanisation of National Foreign Policy. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Turner, B. (2000). Central Europe Profiled: essential facts on society, business and politics in Central Europe. London: Macmillan Reference Limited.
Urwin, D. W. (1991). The Community of Europe: A History of European Integration since 1945. London: Longman.
Wallace, H. & Wallace, W.(eds.) (2000). Policy-Making in the European Union/ Fourth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press..
Webber, M.(ed.) (2000). Russia and Europe. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Welfens, Paul J. (1999). EU eastern enlargement and the Russian transformation crisis. Berlin: Springer.
Wessel, R. A.(1999). The European Union''''s foreign and security policy : a legal institutional perspective. The Hague : Kluwer Law International
Westlake, M. (1999). The Council of the European Union. London: John Harper Publishing.
White, B. (2001). Understanding European Foreign Policy. New York: Palgrave.
White S. (ed.)(0993). Development in East European Politics .London: The Macmillan Press Ltd.
Wiessala, G. (2000). The European Union: annual review 1999/2000. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wood, D. M. & Yeşilada, B. A. (1996). The emerging European Union. New York: Longman.
Zielonka, J. (1998). Paradoxes of European foreign policy. Hague: Kluwer Law International.
【歐盟官方公報】
93/604/CFSP: Council Decision of 9 November 1993 concerning the joint action decided on by the Council on the basis of Article J.3 of the Treaty on European Union concerning the dispatch of a team of observers for the Parliamentary elections in the Russian Federation, Official Journal L 286 , 20/11/1993, p. 3
93/728/CFSP: Council Decision of 20 December 1993 concerning the joint action adopted by the Council on the basis of Article J.3 of the Treaty on European Union on the inaugural conference on the stability pact, Official Journal L 339 , 31/12/1993, pp. 1-2.
93/678/CFSP: Council Decision of 6 December 1993 on a joint action adopted by the Council on the basis of Article J.3 of the Treaty on European Union concerning support for the transition towards a democratic and multi-racial South Africa, Official Journal L 316 , 17/12/1993 pp. 45-47
96/195/CFSP: Joint Action of 5 March 1996 adopted by the Council on the basis of Article J.3 of the Treaty on European Union on participation of the European Union in the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO), Official Journal L 063 , 13/03/1996, p.1
96/588/CFSP: Joint Action of 1 October 1996 adopted by the Council on the basis of Article J.3 of the Treaty on European Union on anti-personnel landmines, Official Journal L 260 , 12/10/1996, pp.1-3.
97/288/CFSP: Joint Action of 29 April 1997 adopted by the Council on the basis of Article J.3 of the Treaty on European Union on the European Union''''s contribution to the promotion of transparency in nuclear-related export controls, Official Journal L 120 , 12/05/1997, p.1.
1999/414/CFSP: Common Strategy of the European Union of 4 June 1999 on Russia , Official Journal L 157 , 24/06/1999, pp.1-10.
1999/877/CFSP: European Council Common Strategy of 11 December 1999 on Ukraine , Official Journal L 331 , 23/12/1999, pp.1-10
2000/458/CFSP: Common Strategy of the European Council of 19 June 2000 on the Mediterranean region , Official Journal L 183 , 22/07/2000, pp.5-11.
Council Decision of 1 October 1996 concerning the financial implications arising from the extension of the mandate of the Special Envoy for the African Great Lakes Region nominated by Joint Action 96/250/CFSP, Official Journal L 260 , 12/10/1996, p.5
Council Decision 2001/78/CFSP of 22 January 2001, setting up the Political and Security Committee, Official Journal L 27, 30/01/2001.
Council Decision 2001/79/CFSP of 22 January 2001, setting up the Military Committee of the European Union, Official Journal L 27, 30/01/2001.
Council Decision 2001/80/CFSP of 22 January 2001 on the establishment of the Military Staff on the European Union, Official Journal L 27, 30/01/2001.
Joint Action of 15 July 1996 adopted by the Council on the basis of Article J.3 of the Treaty on European Union, on the nomination of a Special Envoy of the European Union in the city of Mostar, Official Journal L 260, 12/10/1996, p.6.
Treaty of Nice: amending the Treaty on European Union, the treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, Official Journal C 80, 10/03/2001.
Treaty on European Union. Official Journal C 340, 10/11/1997.
Written Question No. 1969/96 by Wolfgang NUßBAUMER to the Commission. The Helms-Burton Act, Official Journal C 356 , 25/11/1996, p.115.
【官方出版品】
Commission of the European Union, Agenda 2000: for a stronger and wider union, Brussels, 1997. COM (97) 2000 final.
Commission of the European Union, Agenda 2000: the challenge of enlargement, Brussels, 1997. COM (97) 2000 final.
Commission of the European Communities, Glossary: institutions, policies and enlargement of the European Union, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2000.
European Commission, Grants and loans from the European Union, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, April 1997.
OSCE Handbook. Vienna: Secretariat of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 1999
【歐盟高峰會主席決議文】
Presidency Conclusions, Luxembourg European Council, 12 and 13, December 1997, Enlargement.
Presidency Conclusions, Cologne European Council, 3 and 4, June 1999, Annex III, “European Council declaration on Strengthening the Common European Policy on Security and Defence”.
Presidency Conclusions, Helsinki European Council, 10 and 11, December 1999, Annex IX, Presidency Reports on Strengthening the Common European Policy on Security and Defence.
Presidency Conclusions, Santa Maria De Feira European Council, 19 and 20, June 2000, Annex I, Presidency Report on Strengthening the Common European Security and Defence Policy.
Presidency Conclusions, Copenhagen European Council, 12 and 13, December 2002, I. Enlargement.
Press Statement by the Presidency on the Gulf Crisis, Extraordinary European Political Cooperation (Ministerial) Meeting, Luxembourg, 4 January 1991.
【網路資料】
Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe,1990 PARIS SUMMIT, http://www.osce.org/docs/english/1990-1999/summits/paris90e.htm, 2002/11/7.
Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe,1990 BUDAPEST SUMMIT, http://www.osce.org/docs/english/1990-1999/summits/buda94e.htm, 2002/11/07.
Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, http://www.nato.int/pfp/eapc-cnt.htm, 2002/09/20
Instruments of the CFSP, http://ue.eu.int/pesc/default.asp?lang=en,2002/07/19
NATO Member Countries, http://www.nato.int/structur/countries.htm, 2002/09/20
NATO,“Partnership for Peace: Signatures of PfP Framework Document”, http://www.nato.int/pfp/sig-date.htm, 2002/08/22.
NATO-Russia relations, http://www.nato.int/docu/facts/nato-rus.htm, 2002/11/19
NATO Prague Summit Declaration, http://www.nato.int/docu/pr/2002/p02-127e.htm, 2002/11/22.
Pre-Accession Financial Aid: The Phare Programme, http://www.europa.eu.int/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/e50004.htm, 2001/6/18.
Romania Accession Partnership 1999 DG Enlargement Documents, http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/romania/ac_part_10_99draft/index.htm 4, 2002/07/31.
Special Representatives, http://ue.eu.int/pesc/envoye.asp?lang=en, 2002/07/21
The enhanced pre-accession strategy, http://www.evropska-unie.cz/eng/article.asp?id=120, 2002/08/20.
UNPROFOR, http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/unprofor.htm,2002/07/16
Western European Armaments Group, http://www.weu.int/weag/index.html, 2002/11/05.
Western European Armaments Organization, http://www.weu.int/weao/eng/weao.htm, 2002/09/30.
About the Central European Initiative,
http://www.ceinet.org/view/01/01_00.htm, 2002/11/25.
UN Member State, http://www.un.org/members/index.html, 2003/01/09
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