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研究生:游智鈞
研究生(外文):Chin-Chun Yu
論文名稱:設計足球機器人類免疫網路為基礎之避障與物件追蹤控制器
論文名稱(外文):Design of Obstacle-Avoidance and Object-Tracking Controllers for Soccer Robots Based on Artificial Immune Network
指導教授:王銀添王銀添引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yin-Tien Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:類免疫網路全景式影像系統TSK模糊系統
外文關鍵詞:artificial immune networkpanoramic vision systemTSK fuzzy system
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  本研究以類免疫網路概念設計足球機器人的行為式控制器。控制器的設計包括四個程序,包括規劃入侵抗原的偵測方式、定義抗原決定部位與抗體結合部位、建立淋巴細胞活化與抑制機制的數學模式、設計包括搜尋目標的免疫反應動作等。這些設計程序經電腦模擬證實可行,再應用到足球機器人的行為控制。類免疫行為式控制器具備感測、適應與學習以及行動等伺服控制的功能,可以確保所設計的機器人達到避障與追蹤目標等行為能力。
  實作部份,本研究製作具備影像擷取與無線通訊系統的小型足球機器人,使用裝設於機器人上的全景式影像系統回授週遭環境的影像。將凸鏡向機器人的行進方向傾斜一個角度,以增加機器人的前方視野。使用凸鏡取景將造成影像扭曲失真,本文以群集法建立的TSK模糊系統進行影像還原。
  應用發展的類免疫行為式控制器在小型機器人上,進行避障與目標追蹤的實測。結果顯示所提的控制理論可以確保足球機器人完成所規劃的避障與目標追蹤任務。

In this research, a behavior-based controller is designed for a soccer robot by using the concept of artificial immune network (AIN). This design involves four procedures, namely, planning a way to detect the invading antigen, defining the antigenic determinant and antibody combining-site, constructing a mathematical model for adaptive mechanisms which active or suppress lymphocytes, and devising robot actions to the invasion of antigens. These design procedures are confirmed by computer simulation before applied to robot behavior control. The AIN behavior-based controller is equipped with servo functions including sensing, learning and adaptation, and action, so it will ensure the robot to attain the behavior of obstacle avoidance and object-tracking.
A soccer robot of RoboCup small-size league is carried out in this research. The image of the surrounding environment is acquired by a panoramic vision system on the robot, and is fed back to the controller via a wireless communication system. The panoramic vision system is composed of a convex mirror and a CCD camera. The mirror is placed on the top of the robot, and is inclined to the moving direction with a small angle. Therefore, the mirror can reflect more frontal image to the CDD camera. The acquired image is distorted and recovered by a method based on TSK fuzzy system.
The developed AIN behavior-based controller was applied to the small-size robot to verify the function of obstacle avoidance and object tracking. The results show that the robot conforms the behavior-based controller, and has accomplished the planned tasks.

第一章 簡介…………………………………………………1
  1.1 研究動機與目的……………………………………1
  1.2 文獻探討……………………………………………2
    1.2.1 類免疫系統相關文獻………………………2
    1.2.2 模糊系統相關文獻…………………………3
  1.3 研究範圍與論文架構………………………………3
第二章 類免疫行為式控制…………………………………5
  2.1 生物免疫系統與免疫反應…………………………5
  2.2 機器人類免疫行為式控制系統建模………………9
    2.2.1 規劃抗原偵測方式…………………………9
    2.2.2 抗原結合與抗原呈現………………………11
    2.2.3 抗體形成免疫網路…………………………15
    2.2.4 類免疫網路的活化與抑制調適機制………15
    2.2.5 免疫反應動作………………………………17
  2.3 類免疫行為式控制程序……………………………17
第三章 類免疫系統模擬……………………………………19
  3.1 模擬文獻所提類免疫網路演算法…………………19
  3.2 加入目標抗體的模擬………………………………23
  3.3 修改機器人反應與適應機制的模擬………………27
  3.4 變動偵測抗原範圍的模擬…………………………29
  3.5 動態環境模擬………………………………………31
  3.6 模擬結果討論………………………………………40
第四章 足球機器人實作……………………………………41
  4.1 機器人機構設計與製作……………………………41
  4.2 影像擷取系統………………………………………43
  4.3 無線通訊系統………………………………………44
  4.4 主控電腦……………………………………………46
  4.5 馬達驅動電路板……………………………………46
第五章 影像伺服控制系統…………………………………47
  5.1 影像色彩空間………………………………………47
  5.2 影像搜尋辨識………………………………………48
  5.3 影像還原處理………………………………………50
  5.4 影像座標還原視窗介面……………………………57
  5.5 整合系統……………………………………………58
第六章 類免疫行為式控制器實測…………………………60
第七章 討論與建議…………………………………………66
  7.1 研究成果……………………………………………66
  7.2 未來研究方向與建議………………………………66

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