(18.232.55.103) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/23 01:58
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:黃厚滋
研究生(外文):Huang Hou-Tzu
論文名稱:性別政治與社會變遷-馬來西亞馬來婦女社會性別形成之分析
論文名稱(外文):Gender politics and Social Change -Social gender formation of Malaysia Malay Women
指導教授:龔宜君龔宜君引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kung,I-Chun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:東南亞研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:184
中文關鍵詞:馬來西亞馬來婦女伊斯蘭馬來社會習俗社會性別
外文關鍵詞:MalaysiaMalay WomenIslamMalay AdatSocial Gender
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:463
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
論文摘要內容:
女性主義思潮之發軔,讓女性在社會生活中不利之處境,受到了質疑與批判,也帶動了婦女運動,以及婦女和性別之學術研究。女性似乎普遍被認定受到男性所壓迫,特別是穆斯林婦女,在世人即有刻板印象下,她們似乎較其他社會之女性受到男性更嚴重之宰制;不過,從馬來穆斯林婦女之社會性別,並不同於世人對女性、穆斯林婦女之定見。
本論文基於社會性別之形成,是人為的、制度的,由各別社會文化所決定,因此透過歷史結構的研究途徑,藉由伊斯蘭社會秩序、馬來社會習俗、與西方體制價值三者對馬來社會之相互影響,從馬來社會結構及其所經歷之變遷,來研究馬來穆斯林婦女在家庭與工作中角色、地位、權力之形成,所產生之變化,與其他穆斯林婦女之差異,以及其本身之特殊性。
本研究發現,伊斯蘭確實是一個與宗教相結合之父權式社會秩序,涵蓋了政治、經濟、文化等社會層面,以男女/家庭關係規範為其核心,經由律法之實踐,而試圖掌控穆斯林婦女的性欲、再生產、和勞動。也就是說,伊斯蘭父權式社會秩序對女性加以宰制之規範,在其體制性的要求下,勢必會對穆斯林婦女之社會性別形成產生影響。
不過,馬來婦女在成為穆斯林婦女之後,她們的性欲、再生產、和勞動並未受到男性所宰制,反而在家庭與工作領域中擁有許多自主權力,甚至進一步反應到整體社會之政治權力運作上。這與馬來族群的固有之社會文化有關,馬來社會習俗所建構出的男女社會性別,並不一定要由男性來宰制女性,也可立基於男女互惠的平等關係。而在彼此社會文化對女性之觀點有所差異下,相互之接觸導致了伊斯蘭社會秩序之妥協與折衷,英殖民統治前的各馬來蘇丹國,雖制定了伊斯蘭法,回應伊斯蘭化的進展,但馬來習俗法仍舊是當時社會制度規範的主體。因此,在馬來社會習俗之作用下,馬來婦女仍能維持其傳統自主的角色、地位、與權力。
隨著英殖民統治馬來半島,其將西方政經體制帶入馬來社會之中,逐漸改變馬來傳統的社會性別關係。在此一殖民過程中,伊斯蘭法並未像馬來習俗法受到西方法律規範所取代,反而獲得進一步的制度化;而英殖民統治者對馬來族群與女性充滿偏見之經濟政策,也讓馬來婦女在經濟生產活動上處於邊緣與弱勢。伊斯蘭社會秩序之加強與西方體制價值之影響,都使得馬來婦女在的家庭與工作生活上之角色、地位、與權力,開始減少和下降。
在馬來西亞獨立建國後,殖民以來的西方體制價值,和日漸增強之伊斯蘭制度規範發展,開始產生衝突,也導致馬來政治精英、知識分子觀點之分化。執政黨巫統,採取伊斯蘭現代主義,以伊斯蘭社會秩序為體,接納西方現代化、工業化的經濟發展概念,認為伊斯蘭社會秩序之建立,並不能忽略提昇馬來族群的經濟地位。而反對黨伊斯蘭黨、和1970年代興起的各種伊斯蘭復興運動社會團體,則採取伊斯蘭原教旨主義之理念,主張西方的文化和價值,只會造成社會的不公平與失序,要建立伊斯蘭理想社會、促進穆斯林之福祉,應回歸伊斯蘭之原典、教義,全面實施傳統的伊斯蘭法。在雙方的權力競逐下,馬來婦女家庭與工作中的性別關係,成為核心之議題,並於制度面上受到更嚴格之規範。
Abstract
At the very inception of feminist thought, female disadvantage in social life has been questioned and criticized gradually. It contributes to women movement and academic researches on women and gender. Generally speaking, subordination of women seems to be regarded as the product under male repression, especially for Muslim women. The stereotype which women had been dominated more seriously by man in Muslim society than in other societies has rooted deeply in common sense. However, perspective of Malay-Muslim women on social gender differs from prejudice of the world against female and Muslim women.
Based on the assumption on the formation of social gender is manipulative, institutional, and influenced by according character of social culture, the methodology of the research adopt Historical-structural Approach to examine triple relations between Islamic social order, Malay social custom and Western system values toward Malay society, in order to figuring on Malay social structure and its transformation by exploring the speciality of Malay-Muslim women in how they construct role, status and power in the family and working along with other Muslim women.
The research indicates that Islam accurately is a religion consisted with patriarchal social order expanding to politics, economics, culture as well as social dimension. The Gender/familial-centered norm has been practiced in attempt to manipulate Malay-Muslim female sexuality, reproduction and labor. In other words, the social norm that women have been dominated by Islamic patriarchal social order must influence social gender of Muslim Women.
However, male didn’t dominate female sexuality, reproduction and labor after Malay women transformed into Muslim women; they owned much independent power in the family and working, even further responded on operation of political power in the whole society. In fact, the phenomena has related with traditional social culture. In Malay social custom, the gender society is not always dominated by male instead of basing on reciprocal and equal relations between men and women. The thesis implicated that the Islamic social order in Malay Society is more compromising and eclectic as a result of consecutive interaction between different social and cultural perspective on female. Although Malay Sultanate had enacted Islamic law in respond to development of Islamization, Malay Adat law still preserve the subject of past social systemic norm. For instance, regarding to the function of Malay social custom, the Malay women are still keeping their traditional and autonomic role, status and power in many cases.
Since the British Colonial authority introduced western political-economic system into Malay society in the late of 19 centuries, the pattern of traditional gender relation in Malay society has changed. In the process of colony, the position of Islamic law did not replaced by western legal norm. On the contrary, it experienced further institutionalization. Furthermore, British colonial ruler adopted economic discriminatory policy toward Malay ethnicity and women that led to Malay women’s periphery and inferiority in economic production. As a consequence, enhancement of Islamic social order and function of western system values comes to decline and alleviate both of the role, status and power of Malay women in the family and working.
After Malaysia independence, conflict between western system values and increased development of Islamic systematic norm resulted into differentiation between Malay political elites and intellectuals. Ruling party UMNO aimed to introduce Islamic modernism applying to Malay social order, absorbing western modernization, supporting concept of economic development and considering that the establishment of Islamic social order couldn’t ignore the promotion of Malay economic position. Apart from this, the opposition party PAS and diverse Islamic revivalist groups that emerged in the 1970s, adopted Islamic Fundamentalism and claimed that western culture and values cause social inequality and disorder. Hence, both of them invented practices harking back to Islam classical text and teachings in order to establish ideal Islamic society and to promote Malay-Muslim welfare. Finally, the Malay women’s gender relationship in the family and working become core issue for which both sides have striven, and Malay women are imposed on severer norm.
論文目錄
第一章、 緒論................................................1
第一節 研究動機與問題........................................1
第二節 文獻回顧與評估........................................5
第三節 研究觀點與研究目的...................................20
第四節 研究方法.............................................24
第二章、伊斯蘭父權式的體制規範..............................27
第一節 伊斯蘭父權式社會秩序之建立...........................27
第二節 伊斯蘭父權式社會秩序的根源:對女性性欲的懼怕.........28
(一)蒙昧時期阿拉伯婦女性欲之自主..........................29(二)女性自主性欲力量之展現:以先知婚姻生活為例............34
(三)女性自主性欲所造成的社會失序..........................38
第三節 伊斯蘭父權式社會秩對女性性欲之規範...................40
(一)伊斯蘭父權式社會秩序之應有規範........................41
(二)伊斯蘭父權式社會秩序對穆斯林婦女之影響................54
第四節 小結.................................................56
第二章、 馬來社會習俗與伊斯蘭-殖民前馬來婦女的角色、地位、與
權力(1400-1873).................................58
第一節 馬來半島的伊斯蘭化...................................58
第二節 伊斯蘭社會秩序影響之層面.............................61
第三節 馬來社會習俗對女性之規範.............................68
(一)親屬制度..............................................69
(二)馬來社會結構和其政治體系..............................89
第四節 小結.................................................96
第四章、英殖民體制建立與伊斯蘭制度化:馬來婦女角色、地位、與權
力之改變(1874-1956).............................101
第一節 英殖民勢力的入侵....................................101
第二節 馬來政治權力體系的轉變與伊斯蘭體制的增強............103
(一)馬來政治權力體系的轉變:馬來社會習俗制度受取代.......103
(二)伊斯蘭法律體系的建立與伊斯蘭改革思潮的興起...........109
第三節 馬來婦女經濟地位的下降..............................114
(一)英殖民政府的經濟政策法令對馬來婦女經濟地位之影響.....114
(二)伊斯蘭法繼承制度對馬來婦女經濟地位之損害.............122
第四節 小結................................................129
第五章、現代國家與伊斯蘭復興運動-今日馬來婦女角色、地位、與
權力之再規範(1956-).....................................131
第一節 馬來政治精英和知識份子的分化........................131
第二節 巫統對伊斯蘭社會秩序之詮釋..........................136
(一)馬來婦女在家庭層面應受之規範.........................136
(二)馬來婦女在工作層面應受之規範.........................142
第三節 伊斯蘭黨與伊斯蘭復興運動團體對伊斯蘭社會秩序之詮釋..156
(一)馬來婦女在家庭層面應受之規範.........................156
(二)馬來婦女在工作層面應受之規範.........................159
第四節 小結................................................162
第六章、結論:伊斯蘭社會秩序改革之必要性...................164
第一節 研究發現............................................164
第二節 研究貢獻與不足......................................170
第三節 未來展望:伊斯蘭社會秩序之改革......................174
參考文獻...................................................177
圖表目錄
圖表:1.1 理論分析架構圖....................................23
圖表:2.1 蒙昧時期與伊斯蘭時期社會規範之差異圖..............52
圖表:3.1 伊斯蘭社會秩序、馬來社會習俗、與兩者融合之區別圖..98
圖表:4.1 馬來族群所有土地種類圖...........................119
圖表:4.2 馬來族群不同的繼承制度圖.........................128
圖表:5.1 巫統、伊斯蘭黨和伊斯蘭復興運動團體理念之比較圖...135
圖表:5.2 西元2000年馬來西亞產業部門雇傭勞動人數百分率圖...149
參考文獻
(一)中文
Pamela Abbott Claire Wallace原著 俞智敏等譯
1995, 女性主義觀點的社會學 台北 巨流
侯賽因‧那司爾(Seyyed Hossein Nasr)
2002, 伊斯蘭 麥田出版一城邦
孫小迎主編
1995, 東南亞婦女 大陸 廣西人民出版社
陳中和
2001, 馬來西亞巫統和伊斯蘭黨依斯蘭化理念與政策比較研究 淡江大學碩士論文
陳允中
1997, 新興工業國投資與區域發展:台商在馬來西亞投資的政治經濟學分析 台灣大學碩士論文
陳曉律等
2000, 馬來西亞:多元文化中的民主與權威,四川人民出版社
賈瑪‧愛利雅思(Jamal J Elias)
1999, 伊斯蘭教的世界 貓頭鷹一城邦
蔡源林
1999, 馬來西亞國教化的歷史根源 台灣東南亞區域研究年度研討會
羅思瑪莉.佟恩著 刁筱華譯
1996, 女性主義思潮 台北 時報文化
謝高橋編著
1982, 社會學 台北 巨流
顧燕翎主編
2000, 女性主義理論與流派 台北 女書文化
1997, 古蘭經中文譯解 台北 中國回教理事會
(二)英文
Alison Wee Siu Hui, Assembling Gender: The Making of the Malay Female Labour. Malaysia: Strategic Info Research Developmen, no date.
Ahmad Ibrahim, The Status of Muslim Women In Family Law In Malaysia Singapore And Brunei. Singapore: Malayan Law Journal Ltd., 1965.
Ahmad Ibrahim, Family Law In Malaysia And Singapore. Singapore: Malayan Law Journal Ltd, 1978.
Aliah Schleifer, Motherhood In Islam. USA: The Islamic Texts Society, 1986.
Ahmad Ibrahim and Ahilemah Joned, The Malaysian Legal System. Kuala Lumpur: Percetaken Dewan Bahasa dan pustaka, 1987.
Aihwa Ong, Spirits of Resistance and Capitalist Discipline. Albany: University of New York Press, 1987 .
-Aihwa Ong., Malay Peasants from Subsistence to Commodity Production.
-Aihwa Ong.,The Modern Corporation: Manufacturing Gender Hierarchy.
Amran Kasimin, Religion And Social Change among The Indiginious People of The Malay Peninsula. Kuala Lumpur: Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, 1991.
Abdur Rahman I. Doi, Woman in Shariah. Kuala Lumpur: A.S. Noordeen, 1992.
Asghar Ali Engineer, The Rights Of Women In Islam. New York: ST. Martin’s Press, 1992.
Aihwa Ong and Michael G. Peletz, Bewitching Women, Pious Men: Gender and Body Politics in Southeast Asia. Berkeley:University
of California Press, 1995.
Andrew Harding, Law, Government and the Constitution in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Malayan Law Journal Sdn Bhd, 1996.
Ahmad Ibrahim, Family Law in Malaysia. Kualar Lumpur: Malayan Law Journal Sdn Bhd, 1997.
Auwar Hekmat, Women and the Koran: The Status of Women in Islam. New York: Prometheus Books, 1997.
Asghar Ali Engineer, The Quran women And Modern Society. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Limited, 1999.
Barbara Watson Andaya and Leonard Y. Andaya, A History of Malaysia. London: Macmillan Press Ltd,1982.
Cecilia Ng;Foreword by Swasti Mitter, Positioning Women in Malaysia: Class and Gender in an Industrializing State. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999.
Diane Elson and Ruth Perarson, ‘Nimble Fingers Make Cheap Workers’:Analysis of Women’s Employment in Third World Export Manufacturing. Feminist Review, 1981.
David J. Banks, Malay Kinship. U.S.A: ISHI, 1983.
Evelyn Hong, Malaysia Women :Problems and Issuess. Penang: Consumers. Association of Penang, 1983.
-Ng Sock Nye, Status of Rural Women.
Frank Swettenham, British Malaya. London, George Allen and Unwin Ltd, 1906.
Fatima Mernissi, Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in Modern Muslim Society. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Fatima Mernissi, The Veil And The Male Elite : A Feminist Interpretation of Women’s Rights in Islam. Cambridge: Perseus Books,1991.
Fadwa EI Guindi, Veil: Modesty, Privacy and Resistance. Oxford: BERG, 1999.
Fatima Umar Naseef, Women In Islam: A Discourse In Rights And Obligations. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Limited, 1999.
Gavin W. Jones , Marriage and Divorce in Islamic South-East Asia. New York : Oxford University Press, 1994.
Heather Strange, Rural Malay Women In Tradition And Transition. New York:Praeger, 1981.
Hamid Juson, The Position if Islamic Law in the Malaysian constitution with special reference to the conversion case in Family Law. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, 1991.
Haji Faisal Bin Haji Othman, Women, Islam And Nation Building. Kuala Lumpur: Berita Publishing Sdn. Bhd,1993.
Hadir H.Din, Development and the Muslims. Malaysia: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1996.
Haiden Moghissi, Feminism and Islamic Fundamentalism. New York: Zed Books,
1999.
J.E. Kempe and R.O. Winstedt, A Malay Legal Digest. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society-Malayan Branch, 1948.
J. M. Gullick, Indigenous Political Systems of Western Malaya . London: The University of London Press, 1965.
Judith Djamour, Malay Kinship and Marriage in Singapore. London: London School of Economics Monograph, 1965.
Jamilah Ariffin, Industrial Development And Malay Female Rural-Urdan Migration In Malaysia. Malaysia: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1981.
J.M. Gullick, Malay Society in the late Nineteenth Century. Singapore: Oxford University press, 1989.
Jamilah Ariffin, Women and Development in Malaysia. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications Sdn.Bhd.,1992.
Jamilah Ariffin, Readings on Women and Development in Malaysia. Kualar Lumpur: University of Malaya Press,1994.
Jamilah Ariffin coordinated and edited, Poverty Amidst Plenty. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications, 1994.
Jamilah Ariffin, Reviewing Malaysian Women’s Status: Country Report in Preparation for the Fourth UN World Coference on Women . Kualar Lumpru: University of Malaya, 1994.
-Amarjit Kaur, An Historical Analysis of Women’s Economic Participation in Development.
-Jamilah Ariffin,Ecnomic Development and Women in the Manufacturing Sector.
Janet Carsten, The Heat Of The Hearth :The Process of Kinship In A Malay Fishing Community. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
John L. Esposito, Women in Muslim Family Law. New York: Syracuse University Press, 2001.
Khalijah Mohd. Salleh, Women In Development. Kuala Lumpur: Institut Kajian Dasar, 1994.
-Khalijah Mohd. Salleh., Islamic Perspective of Women in Development.
Khoo Kay Kim, Malay Society: transformation and democratisaton. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1995.
K. Rajkumar, Malaysian Labour Laws Made Simple. Malaysia: Pelanduk Publications, 1999.
Liaw Yock Fang, Undang-undang Melaka. The Hague, 1976.
Leila Ahmed, Women and Gender In Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992.
LeeLa Dube, Women and Kinship: Comparative Perspectiver on Gender in South and Southeast Asia. New York: The United Nations University, 1996.
Legal Research Board, Administration of Islamic Law (Federal Territories)ACT 1993, Kualar Lumpur: International Law Book Service, 1997.
Legal Research Board, Federal Constitution. Kuala Lumpur: International Law Book Services,1998.
Legal Research Board, Islamic Family Law (Federal Terriotories) ACT 1984. Kualar Lumpur: International Law Book Service,2000.
Legal Research Board, Federal Territories Syariah Laws. Kualar Lumpur : International Law Book Service, 2000.
M.G. Swift, Malay Peasant Society in Jelebu. London: London School of Economics Monograph on Social Anthropology, 1965.
M.B. Hooker, Reading in Malay Adat Laws. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1970.
-E.N. Taylor, The Customary Law of Rembau.
M.B. Hooker, Adat Laws in Modern Malaya. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1972.
M.B. Hooker, The Personal Laws of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1976.
M.B. Hooker, Adat Law in Modern Indonesia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Masuo Kuchiba、Yoshihiro Tsubouchi、Narifumi Maeda, Three Malay Villages: A Sociology of Paddy Growers in West Malaysia. Honolulu: The University Press Of Hawaii, 1978.
Mosher Yegar, Islam and Islamic institutions in British Malaya. Jerusalem: The Magnes Press, 1979.
Mavis Puthucheary and Tan Poo Chang, Marriage, Household Decisionmaking And Participation of Rural Women In Development. Kualar Lumpur: University of Malaya, 1987.
Mehrun Siraj, Women and The Law :Papers from a Seminar of Family Law. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya, 1988.
Merete Lie and Ragnhild Lund, Renegotiating Local Values: Working Women and Foreign Industry in Malaysia. Wiltshire: Curzon Press, 1994.
Maila Stivens. Cecilia Ng. Jahara Bee. with Jomo K.S. Malay Peasant Women and The Land. London: Zed Books Ltd, 1994.
Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, Women Between Islam And Western Society. New Delh: Goodword Press, 1995.
Maila Stivens, Matriliny and Modernity: Sexual politics and social change in rural Malaysia. Australia: Allen and Unwin , 1996.
Michael G. Peletz, Reason and Passion: Representations of Gender in a Malay Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
Mohd.Taib.Osam, Islamic Civilization in the Malay World. Kuala Lumper:Sasyaz Holdings Sdn. Bhd, 1997.
-Zainal Kling, Social Structure: The Practice of Malay Religiosity.
Mimi Kamariah Majid, Current Legal Prblems in Malaysia. Kualar Lumpur:University of Malayan Press, 1998.
Michael Gates Peletz, A Shave Of The Harvest: Kinship, Property, and Social History Among the Malays of Rembau. Berkekey: University of California Press, 1998.
Maimunah Ismail and Aminah Ahmad, Women and Work: Challenges in
Industrializing Nations. England: Asean Academic Press Ltd, 1999.
Mariam Allana, Muslim Women And Islamic Tradiction. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers, Distributors, 2000.
Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Islamic Law In Malaysia Issues And Developments. Kualar Lumpur: Ilimah Publishers, 2000.
Malaysia Labor Force Survey Report 2000, Malaysia: Department of Statistics, 2001.
Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, Woman In Islamic Shariah. New Delhi: Goodword Books, 2001.
Maimunah Islmal, Malaysian Women in Rural Development and Enterpreneurship. London: Asean Academic Press, 2001.
Maznah Mohamad and Wong Soak Koon, Risking Malaysia: Culture、Politics、and Identity. Malaysia: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2001.
Noranini Abudullah, Gender Ideology And The Public Lives Of Malay Women In Peninsular Malaysia. University of Washington, 1984.
Nik Noriani Nik BadLishah, Marrige And Divorce Under Islamic Law. Malaysia: International Law Book Services,1998.
Nik Noriani Nik BadLishah, Marriage And Divorce: Law Reform Within Islamic Framewrok. Kular Lumpur: International Law Book Services, 2000.
P.E. De Josselin De Jong, Minangkabau and Negeri Sembilan. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1951.
Peter J. Wilson, A Malay Village and Malaysia: Social Values and rural development. New Haven: Hraf Press, 1968.
Penny Van Esterik, Women of Southeast Asia. Center for Southeast Asia Studies: Northern Illinois University, 1996.
Prof. Dr. Anwarullah, The Criminal Law Of Islam. Kuala Lumpur: A.S. Noordeen, 1997.
Raymond Firth, Malay Fishermen: Their Peasant Economy. London: Kegan Paul, Trench Trubner and Co, 1946.
R.O. Winstedt, An Old Minangkaban Legal Diggest from Perak. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society-Malayan Branch, 1953.
Rosemary Firth, House Keeping among Malay Peasant. London: Athlone Press, 1966.
Ruth Taplin, Economic Development and the Role of Women: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Sydney :Avebury, 1989.
Rohana Raja Mamat, Raja, The Role and Status of Malay Women in Malaysia: Socialand Legal perspectives. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1991.
Rita Reddy, Law For Malaysian Women. Malaysia. Petaling Jaya, 1992.
Roziah Omar, Malay Women In The Body Between Biology And Culture. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn.Bhd, 1994.
Rose Ismail, Hudud in Mslaysia The Issues at Stake. Kualar Lumper: Sis Forum Berhad, 1995.
S. Husin Ali, Malay Peasant Society And Leadership. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Sharifah Zaleha Syed Hassan and Sven Cederroth, Managing Marital Disputes in Malaysia: Islamic Mediators and Conflict Resolution in the Syariah Courts. Curzon,1997.
Sharifah Zaleha Syed Hassan, Malaysia Women In the Wake of Change. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya, 1998.
-Fatimah Hamid Don, The National Policy In Women: A Critique.
-Nik Safiah Karim, The Beijing Conference and Malaysia’s Strategies Into 21 Century.
Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, Social Anthropology of The Malays: Collected Eassays of M.G. Swift. Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2001.
-M.G. Swift., Men and Women in Malay Society.
-M.G. Swift., A Note on the Durability of Malay Marriages.
Tey Nai Peng, Roles and Participation of Malaysian Women In Household Decision-Making. Kualar Lumpur: University of Malaysia, 1991.
Tove Stang Dahl, The Muslim Family: A Study of Women’s Riahts in Islam. Boston: Scandinavian University Press, 1997.
Virginia H. Dancz, Women and Party Politics in Peninsular Malaysia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Wu Min Aun, The Malaysian Legal System. Kuala Lumpur: Addison Wesley Longman Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. 1990.
Wazir Jahan Karim, Women and Culture: Between Malay Adat and Islam. Oxford: Westview Press, 1992.
Wazir Jahan Karim, Male and Female in Developing Southeast Asia. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1995.
William R.Roff,The Orings of Malay Nationalism . Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press,1994.
Yvonne Yazbeck Hoddad and John L. Esposito, Islam、Gender、and Social Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Yusof Ismail, Muslim Women In Organizations: A Malaysian Perspective. Kuala Lumpur: A.S. Noordeen, 1994.
Zaleha Kamaruddin and Zeenath Kausar, Women’s Issues: Women’s Perspectives.Malaysia: Wafa, 1995.
Zainah Anwar. Rasnidan Abdullah, Islam, Reproductive Health and Women’s Rights. Kualar Lumpur: Sisters in Islam, 2000.
-Norani othman, Sexuality and Gender Rights:A Sociological Perspective
-Nik Noriani Nik BadLishah, Islam ,Reproductive Health and Women’s Rights in Malaysia.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔