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研究生:張景泰
研究生(外文):Ching-Tai Chang
論文名稱:裝潢木工粉塵及甲醛暴露之健康效應評估
論文名稱(外文):Wood Dust and Formaldehyde Exposure of Carpenters in Interior Construction
指導教授:陳叡瑜陳叡瑜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruey-Yu Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:臺北醫學大學
系所名稱:公共衛生學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:室內裝潢木工木屑粉塵甲醛肺功能
外文關鍵詞:Interior ConstructionCarpentersWood dustFormaldehydePulmonary function
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裝潢工人工作時長期暴露高粉塵、高甲醛、高揮發性有機溶劑、高噪音等有害環境因子之下,可能對工人的呼吸系統、皮膚眼睛、聽力造成傷害;加上裝潢業在台灣並沒有十分完整的工會組織,無適當的職業安全衛生教育介面,工人們的安全與健康觀念較不足。同時,國內在這方面的研究不多也不完整,故為值得研究的主題。本研究主要目的為瞭解室內裝潢工作場所之木屑粉塵及甲醛的分佈情況,及裝潢木工身體健康狀況。
本研究採橫斷性研究,選取正在進行的裝潢工地八處進行環境採樣,採集環境中全粉塵量、可呼吸性粉塵量及甲醛濃度,同時以結構式問卷收集35名工人的工作年資、生活習慣、疾病史及自覺健康狀況等資料;並量測工人之血壓及肺功能,以瞭解工人暴露情形及健康狀況。
結果顯示,研究樣本以中年男性為主,平均年齡40.2歲,平均年資15.8年,平均工時每週40.2小時。工作場所木屑粉塵之8小時日時量平均濃度大多低於法規標準。全粉塵平均濃度為2.87 mg/m3,但最高可達29 mg/m3;可呼吸性粉塵濃度平均值為1.19 mg/m3;甲醛濃度平均值為0.21 ppm,粉塵濃度隨著不同工作內容濃度變化大。在防護措施方面,除不適用的棉質口罩外,少用其他防護具,也不穿著工作服。絕大部分工人有抽菸習慣,而對對工作環境的危害認知以吸到二手菸、空氣太髒、聲音太吵、通風不良、過多有害化學物質、機械傷害為最多。在工人自覺健康狀況方面以眼睛不舒服為最多,咳嗽、咳痰次之。在30位完成肺功能測定的工人中,有7人(23.3%)判定為通氣障礙,其中6個屬於阻塞型通氣障礙,1個屬於限制型通氣障礙;同時,工人的高血壓盛行率高達40.7%。
由多變項複迴歸分析發現,裝潢工人抽菸抽的越多、工作年資越長及戴口罩,肺功能(FEV1/FVC)越差,口罩的使用反而造成反效果,可能與使用無效的口罩及衛生習慣不佳有關。
裝潢木工長期之木屑粉塵及甲醛等暴露的影響已對呼吸系統及眼睛產生影響,政府應將裝潢工人納入管理,加強裝潢工人的安全衛生觀念、改善作業環境,並推動職前與定期健康檢查,以提升裝潢從業人員的安全與健康,預防職業病的發生。
The aim of this study is to measure the distribution of wood dust and formaldehyde in a processing interior construction and to collect the health data of carpenters in interior construction.
This is a cross-sectional study. Eight processing interior construction places were selected. Environmental samples included total wood dust, respirable dust and formaldehyde. 35 workers’ demographic and health data were collected by a constructive questionnaire and pulmonary functional test to evaluate the health situation of the workers.
The results showed that the majority of workers are male with low education. They worked 40.2 hours per week. Most of 8-hour TWA total dust concentrations were lower than standard (10 mg/m3). However the highest level was up to 29 mg/m3, it varied with the work loading. The workers seldom use other personal protective devices except the wrong mouth muffles ues. Most of the workers smoke, environmental tobacco, dirty air, noise, and harmful chemical exposure were the most common complaints from our subjects. The top three of self-reported syndromes are eye irritation, cough and sputum. The results of lung functional test for workers showed that six workers suffered obstructive lung dysfunction and one suffered restrictive lung dysfunction.
The multiple regression model showed that amount of cigarettes smoking, work years and mouth muffle use are negatively correlated with lung functional index (i.e. FEV1/FVC).
【表目錄】 i
【圖目錄】 v
【縮寫符號】 vi
第一章 前言 1
研究目的 3
研究架構 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 裝潢業介紹 5
第二節 木材危害 6
第三節 木屑粉塵 7
第四節 甲醛 13
第三章 材料與方法 22
第一節 研究對象 22
第二節 研究工具、方法 22
(一)粉塵採樣 22
(二)甲醛採樣 24
(三)健康狀況測量 29
第三節 品質管制(QA/QC) 34
第四節 統計方法 37
第四章 結果與討論 38
第一節 作業環境測定 38
第二節 問卷調查分析 51
第三節 裝潢工人健康狀況 64
第四節 暴露效應分析 71
第五章 結論與建議 79
第一節 結論 79
第二節 建議 81
第六章 參考文獻 82
附錄一 採樣地點概述與採樣點擺設位置 88
附錄二 不同木材種類危害 93
附錄三 各採樣地點直讀式粉塵計之粉塵濃度分佈圖 95
附錄四 甲醛層析圖 103
附錄五 甲醛檢量線 104
附錄六 裝潢業工作人員健康狀況問卷調查表 105
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