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研究生:褚得敏
研究生(外文):Te-Mien Chu
論文名稱:降低飲食脂質攝取對年輕人血脂質與血漿脂肪酸組成的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of low fat diet on lipids and fatty acid composition of plasma in young adults
指導教授:鄭心嫻鄭心嫻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsing-Hsien Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:臺北醫學大學
系所名稱:保健營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:飲食脂質血脂質血漿脂肪酸組成年輕人
外文關鍵詞:dietary fatserum lipid profileplasma fatty acid compositionyoung adults
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第三次國民營養調查指出,年輕人有飲食脂質過量的問題,本研究為4週的飲食介入實驗,調整年輕人飲食為適當熱量、降低飲食脂質佔熱量比例,探討對血脂質及血漿脂肪酸組成的影響。18位女性、16位男性共34位20~30歲的健康受試者,攝取由營養師設計符合男性2200大卡、女性1800大卡,與碳水化合物、蛋白質、脂質佔熱量分別為58~68%、10~14%、20~30%原則之午餐及晚餐共4週(假日不供餐)。自飲食介入前一週起,每日填寫飲食記錄,並於介入前、介入第1、4週,空腹收集靜脈血。飲食介入對男女體重均無顯著影響。在飲食攝取方面,介入前男女受試者飲食脂質佔熱量比例分別為35.0%、37.9%,飲食介入後顯著減少為29.5~27.8% (平均值28.7%)、35.1~30.3% (平均值32.3%)。女性多元不飽和脂肪酸、單元不飽和脂肪酸、飽和脂肪酸之比由介入前的1.11 /1.07 /1改變為1.56 /1.12 /1,男性則由1.28 /1.04 /1變為1.59 /1.12 /1。飲食介入亦顯著增加了男女受試者各週的纖維攝取量。血脂質方面,介入1週及4週後,顯著降低女性血清總膽固醇、低密度脂蛋白膽固醇,對三酸甘油酯無顯著影響,而男性除了在介入1週後總膽固醇顯著降低之外,飲食介入對男性血脂質無顯著影響。血漿脂肪酸組成方面,在介入4週後,女性顯著增加14:0、18:3 n-3脂肪酸含量,顯著降低20:4含量、18:2/18:1比例,而男性較介入前16:0含量顯著增加,總n-6多元不飽和脂肪酸、18:2含量顯著降低,其餘脂肪酸與介入前無顯著差異。降低年輕人飲食脂質佔熱量比例約5~7%,改變了飲食中飽和脂肪酸、單元不飽和脂肪酸、飽和脂肪酸之比,4週後使女性血脂質濃度顯著降低,並對男女之血漿脂肪酸組成有不同的顯著改變。
The third Nutrition Survey in Taiwan reported that young adults have a problem with excessive fat intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of reducing the amount of dietary total fat as serum lipids and plasma fatty acid composition in 34 healthy young adults. This was a 4-wk interventional study using experimental meals. Sixteen male and 18 female subjects (age 20-30 yr) were given experimental meals including lunch and dinner for a 4-wk period, but on weekends and holidays, no meals were provided. The experimental meals were designed to provide 2200 kcal/day for each male subject and 1800 kcal/day for each female subject, including 20%~30% of energy from fat, 58%-68% of energy from carbohydrates, and 10%~14% of energy from protein. All subjects kept diet are records. At weeks 0, 1, and 4, blood samples were collected from fasting subjects. Intervention using experimental meals did not affect the body weight of subjects. After the experimental-meals intervention, the energy intake had increased in male subjects, and the energy intake of dietary fat had significantly decreased from 35.0% to 28.7% in males and from 37.9% to 32.3% in females. The polyunsaturated/ monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids (P/M/S) ratios were 1.11/1.07/1 in females and 1.28/1.04/1 in males at week 0. After the 4 wk intervention, the P/M/S ratios were 1.56/1.12/1 in females and 1.59/1.12/1 in males. All subjects had significant higher intake of fiber after the experimental-meals intervention. In female subjects compared with week 0, serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentration had significantly decreased at weeks 1 and 4, serum HDL cholesterol concentration had significantly decreased only at week 4, and there was no significant difference in serum triglyceride concentrations after the experimental-meals intervention. In male subjects, only serum total cholesterol concentration had significantly decreased at week 1. The experimental-meals intervention was associated with significantly greater 14:0 and 18:3 n-3 levels as percentages of total plasma fatty acids and with a significantly lower 20:4 level and 18:2/18:1 ratio as percentages of total plasma fatty acids in females. In male subjects, the 16:0 level of total plasma fatty acids had significantly increased, and the 18:2 and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids levels as percentages of total plasma fatty acids had significantly decreased compared with week 0. Therefore, the benefits of lowering dietary fat intake to 5%-7% of energy may favor changes in serum lipids in females and in plasma fatty acid composition in both males and females.
目 錄
摘 要 I
英文摘要 II
目 錄 III
表 目 錄 V
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
第一節 飲食脂質 3
一、 脂肪酸的分類 3
二、 脂肪酸的代謝 5
三、 飲食脂質的消化吸收 6
四、 脂質的生理功能 8
五、 飲食脂質攝取與心血管疾病的相關性 9
第二節 飲食脂質攝取的生化指標 11
一、 飲食脂質評估的困難 11
二、 血中脂肪酸組成的代表性 12
三、 體內脂肪酸組成與疾病的相關性 14
第三章 實驗設計與方法 17
第一節 招募受試者 17
第二節 實驗飲食 18
第三節 實驗流程 19
第四節 分析項目 20
一、 體位 20
二、 一般血液生化值 20
三、 每日飲食成分 20
四、 受試餐營養成分 20
五、 血脂質 21
六、 血漿脂肪酸組成 21
第五節 分析方法 22
一、 一般血液生化值分析 22
二、 每日飲食成分分析 25
三、 受試餐營養成分分析 26
四、 血脂質分析 31
五、 血漿脂肪酸組成分析 33
第六節 統計分析 35
第四章 結果 36
第一節 受試者 36
第二節 體位及一般血液生化值 36
第三節 飲食紀錄 37
一、 飲食介入前 37
二、 飲食介入後 39
第四節 受試餐營養素成分 42
第五節 血脂質濃度 43
一、 總膽固醇 43
二、 高密度脂蛋白膽固醇 43
三、 低密度脂蛋白膽固醇 44
四、 三酸甘油酯 45
第六節 血漿脂肪酸組成 46
第五章 討論 47
第一節 飲食介入前受試者飲食現況 47
第二節 體重與飲食介入的關係 48
第三節 血脂質改變與飲食介入的關係 50
第四節 血漿脂肪酸改變與飲食介入的關係 55
第六章 結論 58
第七章 參考文獻 59
表 目 錄
表一 台灣地區男女各年齡層每人每天熱量與脂質攝取狀況 71
表二 20~30歲受試大學生每人每日熱量及三大營養素攝取狀況 72
表三 受試者每餐次受試餐之食物類別與份量 73
表四 男性受試餐之菜單範例 74
表五 設計飲食介入期間受試者每日熱量與三大營養素組成 75
表六 受試者體位及一般血液生化值 76
表七 飲食介入前受試者飲食攝取狀況與第三次國民營養調查結果 77
表八 女性受試者在實驗期間每日平均熱量與營養素攝取量 78
表九 男性受試者在實驗期間每日平均熱量與營養素攝取量 79
表十 比較以 AOAC 方法分析與食物成份資料庫分析受試餐之差異 80
表十一 受試者實驗前及實驗期間血脂質含量 81
表十二 受試者實驗前及實驗期間血漿脂肪酸組成 82
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