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研究生:詹禮聰
研究生(外文):Li-tsung Chan
論文名稱:決策合理性對重複購買與轉換決策之遺憾的減緩效果
論文名稱(外文):REGRET IN REPEAT PURCHASE VERSUS SWITCHING DECISIONS: THE ATTENUATING ROLE OF DECISION JUSTIFIABILITY
指導教授:李賢哲李賢哲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsien-che Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:事業經營研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:173
中文關鍵詞:遺憾現狀效果
外文關鍵詞:regretstatus quo effect
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在最近十年中,因為科技的迅速成長,使得國際間市場變動快速。全球化使消費者有更多與更好的選擇,而消費者則通常會決定是否持續購買亦或是轉換為其他品牌。當回顧購買決策時,消費者通常容易對於自己已經做的決策感到遺憾。遺憾,也已經被認定是最主要的負面情緒。
經由廣泛的文獻探討,本研究發現遺憾與現狀效果的關聯。Kahneman與Miller〈1986〉使用規範理論解釋改變現狀會比維持現狀引起更多遺憾。因為保持現狀被認為是較為正常的,所以轉換產生了更多的遺憾。Schweitzer〈1995〉檢查在FSA(Flexible Spending Accounts)的背景下現狀效果的作用。不管現狀捐款情形,回應者大都建議保持現狀於改變現狀。Luce〈1998〉證明遺憾的確是受自責以及受到支持決策理由的影響,在典型的情境中,對於選擇去維持現狀或轉換的理由並不完全清楚。再者,我們推論慣例中需要一個改變,保持現狀比轉換更不正常。個人決策制定的研究已經顯示,選擇通常是根據先前的投資、成本與結果〈Thaler and Johnson 1990〉。
本研究以台灣地區各年齡層消費者為研究對象,問卷採實驗設計方式,且匿名回答。統計分析使用SPSS 10.0版軟體進行分析。研究結果發現:(1)缺乏先前資訊或者在於負面增強先前資訊情況下,轉移決策會比重複決策來得更遺憾。(2)決策較強的原因則會引起隨後較少的遺憾。(3)遺憾在負面的先前經驗/重複與正面的先前經驗/轉換情況,比負面/轉換與正面/重複購買情況來的大。(4)廣泛的品牌歷史將會減少重複購買情況〈與較少的歷史相比〉的遺憾並且增加在轉換情況的遺憾。(5)在控制情況下的重複購買可能性較近似於負面經驗情況而不是正面經驗情況。(6)有說服力的理由存在的決策,現狀效果雖會消失,但仍因微弱理由而存在。(7)理由與決策效果將會藉著決策知覺合理性而減輕。(8)在任何情境下,給予較多的時間考慮都會減少遺憾。(9)不管負面情況的多寡,負面經驗都容易引起反事實思考。由上述可知,決策合理性可以確切的減輕決策所帶來的遺憾,並且顛覆現狀效果。

With increasing globalization of the world economies, market opportunities seem to be more open for consumers. This, in turn, causes broad choices among consumers in order to buy better products. Consumers must often decide whether to continue making decisions as they have been making them or to make them differently. When making these decisions, consumers try to maximize their own satisfaction or utility while choosing an option that protects them from negative emotion. How we evaluate a purchase depends not only on the characteristics of the products we buy but also on the characteristics of products we do not buy. When looking back at purchase decisions, consumers often regret the choices they have made. Regret has been identified as a primary negative emotion, and regret was the most frequently named negative emotion in a study of verbal expressions of emotions in everyday conversation. Generally, the term regret is used to describe the sense of sorrow or disappointment over something done or not done. Thus, it is important to understand the conditions under which switching versus repeating-purchase decisions result in greater regret. Samuelson and Zeckhauser (1988) defined the status quo effect as the tendency to maintain “one’s current or previous decision. Facing with new options, decisions makers often stick with the status quo alternative”. In other words, having made a decision, people tend to repeat it. The status quo effect suggests that a decision maker’s satisfaction with the outcome of a decision does not depend solely on that particular outcome and on how it compares to alternative outcomes. Rather, these evaluative reactions also depend on how the outcome is achieved. This study argues that pervious research on regret and the status quo effect has largely failed to consider that decisions are typically made in the context of prior experiences and outcomes and that these may have a considerable impact on the regret consumers experience in regard to current decision outcomes. This study discusses how the justifiability of decision attenuates the regret that resulted from the purchasing-behaviors of consumers. This study hopes to achieve the following objectives: (1) to identify whether the status quo effect attenuates a consumer’s regret, (2) to manipulate the status quo effect in a consumer setting by providing information about a previous consumption experience, (3) to examine that prior-experience information serves as a reason for the subsequent decision whether would attenuate the status quo effect by the perceived justifiability of the decision, (4) to examine whether different types of negative experiences of consumers who have more time to make decisions would attenuate their regret, (5) to examine whether more negative experiences would let consumers induce counterfactual thinking easier than others.
The samples for this study are consumers who had purchasing experiences of cell phone, computer, or restaurant respectively. This student sends out 2,500 copies of the questionnaires and receives 2,212 replies. There were 2,182valid replies. The response rate was 88.48%, and the valid response rate was 87.28%. This study has several conclusions as follows:
1.In the absence of prior information or when negative reinforcing prior information is available, a decision to repeat will be regretted more than a decision to switch.
2.A strong reason for a decision will result in lower subsequent regret.
3.Regret will be greater in both the negative- prior-experience/repeat and the positive-prior-experience/switch conditions than in the negative/switch and positive/repeat conditions.
4.Extensive experiencing history will decrease regret in the repeat condition (compared to low experiencing history) and increase it in the switching condition.
5.The status quo effect will be eliminated when there is a strong purchasing reason for the decision but will still be present when there is a weak purchasing reason.
6.The effect of reason and decision on subsequent regret will be mediated by the perceived justifiability of the decision.
7.The condition in the control experience will be more similar to that of the negative experience than to that of the positive experience.
8.If there is more time to make decision, the consumer would feel less regret.
9.The consumers who were in the absence of negative experiences would feel induce counterfactual thinking easily than others.

CONTENTS
Page
CHINESE ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………….I
ENGLISH ABSTRACT………………………………………………………….III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………VI
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………X
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS…………………………………………………XIII
Chapter
1 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………1
Research Background and Motives………………………………………1
Research Objectives……………………………………………………3
Research Restructure……………………………………………………...4
2 LITERATURE REVIEWS……………………………………………6
The Basic Concept of Regret Theory and Relevant Literatures……6
The Basic Concept of Status Quo Effect and Relevant Literatures..............12
3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………………………………16
Research Framework……………………………………………………16
Research Hypotheses………………………………………………………17
Operational Definitions and Questionnaire Design…………………24
Pretest………………………………………………………………………26
Subjects Population………………………………………………………27
Data Collection…………………………………………………………27
Analytic Methods…………………………………………………………28
4 DATA ANALYSIS……………………………………………………………29
Demographics Analysis…………………………………………………29
Reliability and Validity……………………………………………31
The Influence of Status Quo Effect on the Regret…………………32
Two-Way Interaction Test……………………………………………32
ANOVA Test…………………………………………………………36
Simple Interaction Test………………………………………………38
The Influence of Status Quo Effect and Experiencing History on the Regret……………………………………………………………………41
Three-Way Interaction Test…………………………………………41
ANOVA Test…………………………………………………………48
Simple Interaction Test………………………………………………50
The Influence of Status Quo Effect and Purchasing Reason on the Regret………………………………………………………………………58
Three-Way Interaction Test………………………………………58
ANOVA Test…………………………………………………………65
Simple Interaction Test……………………………………………67
The Influence of Status Quo Effect and Purchasing Reason on the Justification of Decision………………………………………………76
Three-Way Interaction Test………………………………………76
ANOVA Test…………………………………………………………84
Simple Interaction Test………………………………………………85
The Relationship between the Length of Decision Making and Regret…94
ANOVA Test…………………………………………………………94
The Relationship between the Counterfactual Thinking and Regret……96
ANOVA Test…………………………………………………………96
Summary of Hypothesis Test………………………………………………98
5 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS……………………………………101
Conclusions…………………………………………………………………101
Suggestions…………………………………………………………102
Limitations…………………………………………………………………104
Future Suggestions………………………………………………………105
BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………106
APPENDIX A─CHINESE QUESTIONNAIRE………………………………110
APPENDIX B─CHINESE ABSTRACT OF THESIS………………………147
VITA…………………………………………………………………………173
TABLES
Table Page
1.Relevant Literatures of Regret Theory……………………………11
2.Relevant Literatures of Status Quo Effect………………………15
3.Regret and Justifiability of Decision Practices………………25
4.The replies of Different Experiences of Cell phone, Computer, and Restaurant………………………………………………………………27
5.The Structure of the Respondents……………………………………30
6.Reliability of Factors…………………………………………………32
7.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect─cell phone……………………33
8.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect─computer………………………34
9.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect─restaurant……………………35
10.Mean and Standard Deviation of regret in the Status Quo Effect─cell phone, computer, and restaurant………………………36
11.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Status Quo Effect─cell phone……37
12.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Status Quo Effect─computer………37
13.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Status Quo Effect─restaurant………37
14.Simple Interaction Test in Status Quo Effect ─cell phone…………………….38
15.Simple Interaction Test in Status Quo Effect─computer……39
16.Simple Interaction Test in Status Quo Effect─restaurant…40
17.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect and Experiencing History─cell phone…42
18.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect and Experiencing History─computer…44
19.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect and Experiencing History─restaurant…46
20.Mean and Standard Deviation of regret in the Status Quo Effect and Experiencing History─cell phone, computer, and restaurant………………….47
21.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Experiencing History─cell phone..49
22.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Experiencing History─computer…49
23.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Experiencing History ─restaurant…50
24.Simple Interaction Test in experiencing History Effect─cell phone…………51
25.Simple Interaction Test in experiencing History Effect─computer……………54
26.Simple Interaction Test in experiencing History Effect─restaurant…………56
27.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect and Purchasing Reason─cell phone…59
28.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect and Purchasing Reason─computer…61
29.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect and Purchasing Reason─restaurant……62
30.Mean and Standard Deviation of regret in the Status Quo Effect and Purchasing Reason─cell phone, computer, and restaurant………….…………….…..….64
31.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Purchasing Reason─cell phone……66
32.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Purchasing Reason ─computer……66
33.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Purchasing Reason ─restaurant……66
34.Simple Interaction Test in Purchasing Reason Effect─cell phone…………68
35.Simple Interaction Test in Purchasing Reason Effect─computer……………71
36.Simple Interaction Test in Purchasing Reason Effect─restaurant……………74
37.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect and Purchasing Reason─cell phone…77
38.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect and Purchasing Reason─computer......…79
39.MANOVA in the Status Quo Effect and Purchasing Reason─restaurant…….81
40.Mean and Standard Deviation of regret in the Status Quo Effect and Purchasing Reason─cell phone, computer, and restaurant……….…….……...83
41.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Purchasing Reason─cell phone……84
42.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Purchasing Reason─computer……85
43.Summary ANOVA Results of Gender in Purchasing Reason─restaurant……85
44.Simple Interaction Test in Purchasing Reason Effect─cell phone……………87
45.Simple Interaction Test in Purchasing Reason Effect─computer……………90
46.Simple Interaction Test in Purchasing Reason Effect─restaurant……………92
47.ANOVA in the Length of Decision Making and Regret─cell phone …………94
48.ANOVA in the Length of Decision Making and Regret─computer…………94
49.ANOVA in the Length of Decision Making and Regret─restaurant………95
50.Mean and Standard Deviation of Regret in the Relationship of the Length of Decision Making and Regret……………………………95
51.ANOVA in the Counterfactual Thinking and Regret─cell phone……………96
52.ANOVA in the Counterfactual Thinking and Regret─computer……..…….…96
53.ANOVA in the Counterfactual Thinking and Regret─restaurant……......…….97
54.Mean and Standard Deviation of Regret in the Relationship of the Counterfactual Thinking and Regret………………………………97
55.Summary of Research Hypothesis Tests─cell phone……………98
56.Summary of Research Hypothesis Tests─computer………………99
57.Summary of Research Hypothesis Tests─restaurant……………100
ILLUSTRATION
Figure Page
1.Research Procedure………………………………………………………5
2.Research Framework………………………………………………………17
29-238.
Thaler, Richard H. and Eric J. Johnson, “Gambling with the House Money and Trying to Break Even: The Effects of Prior Outcomes on Risky Choice.” Management Science 36 (June 1990): 643-661.
Tsiors, Michael. “Effect of Regret on Post-choice Valuation: The Case of More Than Two Alternatives.” Organizational behavior and Human Decision Processes 76 (October 1998): 48-69.
________ and Vikas Mittal. “Regret: A Model of Its Antecedents and Consequences in Consumer Decision Making.” Journal of Consumer Research 26 (March 2000): 401-417.
Zeelenberg, Marcel. “On the Importance of What Might Have Been: Psychological Perspectives on Regret and Decision Making,” (Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Social Psychology, University of Amsterdam, 1996), 1018-WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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