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研究生:陳德忠
研究生(外文):Teh-Chung Chen
論文名稱:IEEE802.11無線區域網路安全實務研究
論文名稱(外文):THE PRACTICAL ASPECT OF NETWORK SECURITY IN IEEE 802.11 WLANS
指導教授:陳建華陳建華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chienhua Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:通訊工程研究所碩士在職專班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:56
中文關鍵詞:無線網路
外文關鍵詞:WLAN securityWEP security
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本論文主要是針對無線網路802.11b之安全性進行探討與研究,其中提及目前WLAN之安全機制包括SSID之比對、MAC 位址過濾及WEP密鑰加密等,針對這些安全驗證方法,我們列舉出一些入侵手法,包括如何獲取SSID,偽冒MAC位址及使用FMS Attack 來進行WEP 密鑰之破解。
本論文並以實作之方式來對這些入侵手段予以驗證,結果有些符合理論預期,有些則並不如報導所言那麼地易受攻擊,隨著無線網路之快速發展及大量需求,無線設備製造商也一一提出了解決方案,本論文亦說明廠商如何針對這些問題來進行無線網路安全研究,並在其設定中加入更符合人性化管理之機制,節省MIS人員維護時間,進而發揮無線設備之便利性。最後針對無線網路安全發展,提出該議題如何進入更深一層研究之看法。
The topic of this thesis is the Wireless LAN 802.11b network security. We discuss the WLAN security mechanisms including the comparisons of SSIDs, MAC address filtering and the WEP key encryption. Based on these authentication methods, we list some hacker’s tricks that include SSID enumeration, MAC address spoofing and WEP key cracking by FMS Attack [2].
This thesis also verified these mechanisms by experiments. Some of these results just fit what the theory describes. Some of these attacks are not as easy as the press said. With the rapid developments of WLAN and the large demands of wireless equipments, the vendors propose many solutions. This thesis also introduces how these companies do their security enhancement research. And they make WLAN managements concerned with humanities to save more MIS agents’ working time. It makes more convenient of wireless equipment maintenance. Finally, we proposed what could be probed for further on.
ABSTRACT (in Chinese) I
ABSTRACT (in English) II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT III
LIST OF FIGURES VIIII
LIST OF TABLES IX
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Wireless Network 1
1.1.1 Wireless benefits 1
1.1.2 Wireless trends 1
1.2 Wireless Technologies 2
1.2.1 Cellular-based wireless network 2
1.2.2 Wireless LAN 2
1.3 IEEE 802.11 WLAN 3
1.3.1 IEEE 802.11 Architectures 3
1.3.2 802.11b 3
1.4 WLAN Wireless Security 4
1.4.1 802.11b security mechanism 4
1.4.2 SSID association 4
1.4.3 MAC filtering 5
1.4.4 WEP 5
1.5 Thesis summary 6
CHAPTER 2 WAR-DRIVING SCENARIOS 7
2.1 What’s War-driving? 7
2.1.1 War-driving gears 7
2.1.2 Wireless card chipsets 10
2.2 WLAN Sniffing 11
2.2.1 Sniffing tools 11
2.2.2 Sniffing data 12
2.3 SSID Enumeration 14
2.3.1 WLAN script kiddy’s toy-Netstumbler [8] 14
2.3.1.1 Installation and configuration 15
2.3.1.2 Performance enhancement 15
2.3.1.3 War-driving map 17
2.3.2 Default SSID value of APs 20
2.4 MAC Spoofing 20
2.4.1 spoofing trick 21
2.4.2 Spoofing case scenario 22
2.5 WEP Key Security 23
2.5.1 Authentication spoofing of WEP enabled WLAN 24
2.5.2 Acquiring WEP keys from Windows registry 24
2.5.3 Other WEP problems 26
2.5.4 Get in with the WEP key 27
CHAPTER 3 USING RC4 WEAKNESS TO CRACK WEP KEY 28
3.1 WEP Algorithm 28
3.1.1 WEP structure 28
3.1.2 WEP encryption/decryption process 29
3.2 RC4 Weakness of WEP Encryption 30
3.2.1 RC4 weakness 31
3.2.2 Weak IVs 32
3.3 Cracking Methods 33
3.3.1 brute force cracking 34
3.3.2 FMS cracking 34
3.3.3 Consuming time of WEP cracking 35
3.4 Tools for Cracking 36
3.4.1 WEPCrack 36
3.4.2 AirSnort 37
3.5 The AirSnort WEP Cracking Scenario 38
3.5.1 Gears and softwares 38
3.5.2 Installation procedure 39
3.5.3 WEP cracking details 40
3.5.4 Experimental results 41
3.5.5 Analysis 44
3.5.6 Few weak IVs of Cisco 46
CHAPTER 4 ENHANCEMENT OF WLAN SECURITY 47
4.1 WEP Improvements 47
4.1.1 WEP key hashing 47
4.1.2 Dynamic WEP keys 49
4.1.3 Initialization Vector changes 49
4.2 Message Integrity Check 50
4.3 802.1X/EAP 51
4.3.1 802.1X 51
4.3.2 EAP 51
4.3.3 LEAP 53
4.4 Improved Concept of WLAN Security 54
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 56
5.1 The Sword Against the Shield 56
5.2 Future Works 56
REFERENCE 57
[1] Christian Barnes, "Hack Proofing Your Wireless Network", 2001, p.23-45, p.209-211, p.229, p.290
[2] Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir, "Weakness in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4", http://downloads.securityfocus.com/library/rc4_ksaproc.pdf
[3] Alex Salkever, "Wireless Networks: Open Doors for Bad Guys", http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/sep2001/nf20010911_0545.htm
[4] "Figure 2.1 Laptop Mode", http://www.wardriving.com/fiva.jpg
[5] "Figure 2.2 PDA Mode", http://www.war-driving.com/ipaq.jpg
[6] " Figure 2.3 CAR Mode", http://home.attbi.com/~digitalmatrix/war-driving/MDXstumbler.jpg
[7] "Figure 2.4 A coin size GPS", http://www.sapphire-gps.com/pages/957736/index.htm
[8] "Netstumbler", http://www.netstumbler.com/index.php
[9] "AirSnort", http://sourceforge.net/projects/airsnort
[10] " Sniffer Pro ", http://www.sniffer.com/
[11] " Airopeek ", http://www.wildpackets.com/
[12] "Figure 2.10 the Yagi style antenna ", http://www.netscum.com/%7Eclapp/images/wireless/project-wireless-11.jpg
[13] "Figure 2.11 enforcement antenna sold by Netstumbler", http://www.wirelesscentral.net/aprod/STUM-ANT.html
[14] "Figure 2.12 cans antenna ", http://www.turnpoint.net/wireless/images/comparebig.jpg
[15] "Figure 2.13 War-driving map of New York, U.S.A", http://www.securitytribe.com/wardrive/NYC.html
[16] "Figure 2.14 the Netsumbler GPS Plug-In", the Netsumbler Plug-In software demo picture
[17] Adam Stubblefield, John Ioannidis, Aviel D, Rubin, “Using the Fluhrer, Mantin, and Shamir Attack to Break WEP”, 2001, AT&T Labs Technical Report TD-4ZCPZZ, pp.1-12
[18] WEPcrack, http://sourceforge.net/projects/wepcrack
[19] Cisco Aironet Wireless LAN Security Overview, http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/witc/ao350ap/prodlit/a350w_ov.htm
[20] Cisco Aironet Security Solution Provides Dynamic WEP to Address Researchers Concerns, http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/witc/ao350ap/prodlit/1281_pp.htm
[21] Configuring the Cisco Wireless Security Suite, http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/witc/ao1200ap/prodlit/wrsec_an.htm
[23] Authentication with 802.1x and EAP Across Congested WAN Links, http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/witc/ao350ap/prodlit/authp_an.htm
[24] IEEE 802.1x, http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.1x-2001.pdf
[25] Andrew Roos, "A Class of Weak Keys in the RC4 Stream Cipher", 1995, p.3-15
[26] PcOnline, 蟲.11bWLAN transmission test report", 2001 http://www.pcmag.com.cn/pcmag/features/story/0,2000102513,39035506-7,00.htm
[27] Hawkingtech Company, "Transmission range test report", 2002, http://www.hawkingtech.com/products/wp251.htm
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