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研究生:陳靖雄
研究生(外文):Jing-shieng Chen
論文名稱:以超臨界流體萃取及氣相層析質譜儀分析食物中酞酸鹽類含量
論文名稱(外文):Study on phthalate residues in food by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry
指導教授:陳美蓮陳美蓮引用關係毛義方毛義方引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mei-Lien ChenI-Fang Mao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:環境衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:超臨界流體酸鹽類微波加熱包裝餐盒保鮮膜
外文關鍵詞:supercritical fluidphthalate estersmicrowave heatingfoodGC/MS
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摘 要
本研究第一部份在建立以超臨界流體萃取零售餐盒食物中
的微量酞酸鹽類,並以氣相層析質譜儀定量之方法。第二部份則是測
定零售餐盒在微波前後食物中的酞酸鹽類含量,以了解微波加熱是否
使餐盒材質中的酞酸鹽類溶出以及覆蓋保鮮膜加熱之酞酸鹽類出情
形。所萃取的六種酞酸鹽類為DMP,DEP,DBP,BBP,DEHP,DOP。萃
取條件的建立包括壓力為6000 psi,萃取槽及限流器的溫度為120
℃。萃取的時間總共為30 分鐘,先以靜態萃取15分鐘後,再以動
態萃取15分鐘。
第一部份是利用添加回收率來評估萃取條件的適當性,
於便利商店中購買零售餐盒做為分析基質,並將六種酞酸鹽類分別以
0.25,0.50,1.00,2.00,3.00,4.00 µg/mL等六個濃度添加到樣
本中做為回收率試驗。其中,DMP的回收率平均值為90.69%,DEP為
91.31%,DBP為97.39%, BBP為95.31%,DEHP為89.89%,DOP為92.44%。
第二部份實驗設計分為兩大類,第一類分為未加熱之控制組
(Control A)及按餐盒上的微波指示將食物於餐盒內微波加熱兩分鐘(Heating 1 group)。第二類分為控制組(Control B)、於餐盒內微波加熱三分鐘(Heating 2 group)、於碗內微波加熱
三分鐘(覆蓋保鮮膜但不接觸食物)(Heating 3 group),於盤內微
波加熱三分鐘(覆蓋保鮮膜並接觸食物)(Heating 4 group)四組。
研究發現(1)未加熱之餐盒即有酞酸鹽類,(2)餐盒包裝材質於微
波加熱中,會有酞酸鹽類的溶出,(3)覆蓋保鮮膜於微波加熱中,即
使不接觸到食物,也會有酞酸鹽類的溶出。依結果計算攝食一個便當
的酞酸鹽攝取量,再以歐盟訂定的酞酸鹽類的TDI(Tolerable daily
intake)計算其佔每日攝取量之百分比,則不論在何種微波加熱情形
下,DEHP的平均食入量在六種化合物中皆為最高。

Abstract
The first part of this study is aimed to extract phthalate residues in retail packed lunches by using supercritical fluid extraction then determined by GC/MS. The second is to measure phthalates levels in packed lunches and to analyze the migration of phthalates from plastic wrap during microwave heating. The extraction conditions were set to 6000 psi for pressure, oven and restrictor temperature were 120℃. The extraction time was 15 minutes with static mode followed by dynamic mode for 15 minutes. The recoveries of phthalates- DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DOP -for packed lunches were assessed by a spike test. The average of recoveries for DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DOP were 90.69%, 91.31%, 97.39%, 95.31%, 89.89% and 92.44%, respectively. Six out of nine samples were used to determine the migration of phthalate residues from the packages to food. Each
homogenized sample was divided into two parts - one was
microwaved for 2 minutes in its package as its instruction, denoted as heating 1, the other was analyzed without any treatment, severed as control group, denoted as control A. Another three samples were used to determine the contamination of plastic wrap on food by covering with plastic films during microwave heating. The first part was conducted as control group without any treatment, denoted as control B. The second
part, which was denoted as heating 2, was microwaved in the package for 3 minutes without any cover with plastic wrap. The third part, which was denoted as heating 3, was microwaved in a bowl for 3 minutes with the food being covered with plastic wrap but keeping the plastic wrap from contacting food. The forth part, which was denoted as heating 4, was microwaved in a plate for 3 minutes with the food being covered with plastic wrap but keeping the plastic wrap contacting with food.
The results showed that (1) phthalates contamination was observed in packed lunches (2) microwave heating would cause the migration of phthalates from packages to food. (3) the food that covered with plastic wrap during microwave heating also caused the phthalates migration even the plastic wrap was not contact with food.
Keywords : , , ,
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part I
Contents
Contents…………………………………………………………..………I
List of table……………………………………………………………III
List of Figures………………………………………………………. IV
Chinese abstract…………………………….…………………………V
English abstract…………………………………………………… VII
1.Introduction………………………………………………………….….1
2.Literature reviews……………………………………………………4
2.1 Phthalate residues in foods…………..………………….…..4
2.2 Toxicities of phthalate esters…..…………….……….…...4
2.2.1 Di-(2ethylhexyl) phthalate………………………………....5
2.2.2 Benzyl butyl phthalate………………..…………………….….6
2.2.3 Dibutyl phthalate…...………………….……………………..7
2.2.4 Di-n-octyl phthalate…...……...…………………………..…7
2.3 Migration of phthalates.………………………………………..8
2.4 Methods of extraction of phthalate esters.…………………..8
2.5 Supercritical fluid extraction….……………………………..9
2.5.1 Properties of supercritical fluid extraction…………….9
2.5.2 Advantages compared with traditional extraction.………10
2.5.3 Factors affecting solubility in supercritical fluids..10
2.5.3.1 Physical properties of solute...…………..…………..10
2.5.3.2 Temperature and pressure…...………………..……..11
2.5.3.3 Extraction system…………………………….….…..11
2.5.3.3.1 Static mode…...………… …………………12
2.5.3.3.2 Dynamic mode……………………….……..12
2.6 Application of supercritical fluid extraction for phthalate
extraction………………………………...…………………...12
3. Materials and methods…………………………….……..14
3.1 Apparatus…………………………………………………………..14
3.2 Materials……………………………………………………...14
3.3 Chemicals………………...…………………………………...15
3.4 Methods………………………………………………………..…..15
3.4.1 Calibration curves….……………………………………..….15
3.4.2 Extraction conditions.…………………………………….….16
3.4.3 Sample extraction and cleanup……………………….……..16
3.5 GC/MS conditions………………………………………….……...17
3.6 Recovery test………………………………………………………18
3.7 Detection limit……………………………………………………19
4.Results and discussion…………………………………..…...20
References…………………………….……………………………...23
List of Tables
Table 1. General structures of the six phthalate compounds…………………28
Table 2. Recoveries and precision of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in diet samples…………….29
Table 3. Recoveries and precision of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in diet sample……………………...30
Table 4. Recoveries and precision of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in diet samples…………………………………….31
Table 5. Recoveries and precision of butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) in diet samples…………………………………………32
Table 6. Recoveries and precision of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in diet samples….…………………………………33
Table 7. Recoveries and precision of di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) in diet samples……………………………………….……34
List of Figures
Figure 1. A typical chromatogram of the six phthalates in standard solution
(1μg/mL for each compound)………………………………….36
Figure 2. Mass spectra for the six phthalate esters…………………………...37
Figure 3. A chromatogram of a non-spiked packed lunch sample……………38
Figure 4. A chromatogram of a spiked packed lunch sample (spiked concentra-tion of 2μg/mL for each compound)……………………………...39
Figure 5. Calibration curves of the six phthalate esters………………………40
part II
Contents
Contents………………………………………………I
List of Tables….……………………………………………..III
List of Figures…………...………………………………..IV
Chinese abstract…………………………………………………..…….V
English abstract……………………………………………………VII
1.Introduction………………………………………………………….….1
2.Literature reviews………………………………………………..……4
2.1 Migration of phthalates…...…………….…………….…..4
2.1.1 Migration from plastics…….……………………….………..4
2.1.2 Migration through microwave………………………………..4
2.2 Phthalate residues in food……..…………….……….…...5
2.3 Tolerable daily intake of phthalates...…………………..6
2.3.1 TDI set by the Scientific Committee for Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment………………………………...6
2.4 Toxicities of phthalate esters……………………………….7
2.4.1 Di-(2ethylhexyl) phthalate…….………………………....7
2.4.2 Benzyl butyl phthalate………………..…………………….….8
2.4.3 Dibutyl phthalate…...………………….……………………..9
2.4.4 Di-n-octyl phthalate…...……...…………………………..…9
2.5 Conditions of supercritical fluid extraction…….….…..10
2.5.1 Physical properties of solute...…………..…..……..11
2.5.2 Temperature and pressure…...………………..…………...11
2.5.3 Extraction mode………………………………………….…..12
2.5.3.1 Static mode…...………………… …………………12
2.5.3.2 Dynamic mode……………………….……..12
3. Materials and methods…….…………………………….……..13
3.1 Apparatus…………………………………………………………..13
3.2 Materials………………………………………………………...13
3.3 Chemicals…………………….…………………………………...14
3.4 Methods………………………………………………………..…..15
3.4.1 Food samples……….……………………………………..….15
3.4.2 Calibration curves……………………………………………16
3.4.3 Extraction conditions.…………………………………….…..17
3.4.4 Sample extraction and cleanup……………………….……..17
3.5 GC/MS conditions………………………………………….……...18
4.Results and discussion……………………………………..…...19
4.1 Phthalate levels in packed lunches…………………………..19
4.2 Phthalate levels of packed lunches in different treatment conditions.20
4.3 Daily intake of phthalates compared with TDI……………….22
4.4 Method validation…………………………….…………..……24
References…………………………….……………………………...26
List of Tables
Table 1. General structures of the six phthalate compounds….……………33
Table 2. Temperature of 100 grams water heated by the microwave oven with 700W, 2450MHz………………………………….34
Table 3. Migration of phthalates from packed lunch packages to food.……35
Table 4. Migration of phthalates under different treatment conditions…….36
Table 5. Calculated phthalates intake and percentage of TDI based on a packed lunch under different treatment conditions…………37
List of Figures
Figure 1. A typical chromatogram of the six phthalates in standard solution...38
Figure 2. Phthalates in packed lunches before and after microwave heating...39
Figure 3.Comparison of phthalates in food under different treatment conditions………………………………………………40
Figure 4. Calculated phthalates intake and percentage of TDI based on a 400 grams packed lunch under different treatment conditions………....41
Figure 5. Calibration curves of the six phthalate esters……42

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23. International Program on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria 131, 1997. Diethylhexyl phthalate. World Health Organization, Geneva.
24. Y. Tsumura, S. Ishimitsu, I. Saito, H. Sakai, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Tonogai, 2001. Eleven phthalate esters and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in one-week duplicate diet samples obtained from hospitals and their estimated daily intake. Food Additives and Contaminants. Vol. 18, No.5, p.449-460.
25. J. H. Petersen, T. Breindahl, 2000. Plasticizeds in total diet samples, baby food and infant formulae. Food Additives Contaminants. Vol. 17, No.2, p.133-141.
26. Scientific Committee on Toxicology, Ecotoxicity and the Environment, 1998. Opinion expressed at the Scientific Committee on Toxicology, Ecotoxicity and the Environment third plenary meeting, Brussels, EU.
27. K. Mehrotra, R. Morgenstern, G. Lundquist, L. Becedas, A. M. Benhtsson, A. Geogellis, 1997. Effects of peroxisome proliferors and/or hypothyroidism on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat testis. Chemical-Biological Interaction. Vol. 140, p.131-145.
28. R. W. Tyl, C. J. Price, M. C. Marr, C. A. Kimmel, 1988. Developmental toxicity evaluation of dietary di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in Fischer 344 rats and CD-1 mice. Fundamental Application Toxicology. Vol. 10, p.395-412.
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