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研究生:林詩堯
研究生(外文):Shy-yau Lin
論文名稱:R-410A冷媒在U形連續彎管的壓降特性
論文名稱(外文):Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop of R-410A in a Conseutive U-type Tube
指導教授:陳英洋
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:非共沸冷媒與近共沸冷媒兩相流U型連續波浪管摩擦因子壓降
外文關鍵詞:Frictional factorPressure dropAzeotrope refrigerantU consecution wavy pipeTwo phase flowNonazeotrope refrigerant
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U形彎管在空調系統設計上是一種很常用的管線,此種設計可以有效減少熱交換器的體積,達到縮小整體系統的目的,但不管是單相流或是兩相流,流經彎頭時皆會因為擾動產生額外的摩擦損失,而壓降的改變會直接影響管路系統內的的兩相飽和溫度,進而改變空調機的效能,因此能夠精確的了解兩相流在 U形 彎管內的壓降數據,就能夠改善空調機的效能。
本實驗是以R-410A(HFC-32和HFC-125各佔50%)冷煤進行兩相流壓降量測,實驗的U形管管徑分別為3.3mm和5.07mm兩種,曲徑比(2R/D)由3.91∼8.15,質通量由100kg/m2.∼s900kg/m2.s,飽和溫度為25℃和10℃,測試入口氣體乾度從0.1∼0.9。
在分析數據上,單相彎管分別與Ito(1960)、Wojtkowiak&Popiel(2000)、Chenet.al(2002)進行比較,兩相直管與Friedel(1979)進行比較,而兩相彎管則是與Geary(1975)、Awward(1995)、Chen et.al(2002)進行比較,我們發現除了Friedel的預測式有較佳的結果外,其餘預測式都存相當程度的誤差值,這表示目前所找到的預測式皆會因為流體性質不同、管徑的不同或質通量不同而使適用範圍有所限制使用,仍未有一個有理想誤差而又泛用的預測式。
U-type tube is very popular in the design of air-conditioning system. It is effective design to shrink the mass of heat exchanger to compact whole system. But no matter single-phase flow or two-phase flow, flow disturbance will be created when they flow through bend of tubes. And then an additional pressure drop will be induced. The pressure drop will influence the system saturation temperature to change the efficiency of refrigeration. Therefore, to comprehend the data of two-phase pressure drop in curved tubes, the efficiency of refrigeration could be improved.
Measured two-phase pressure drop for R-410A in U-type tubes. R410A is composition HFC-32/ HFC-125(50/50 wt. %). The inner diameters of the tubes are 3.43 and 5.07mm, whereas the curvature rations span from 3.91~8.15. The range of the mixture mass flux (G) is between 100 and 900 kg/m2�泅. Saturation temperatures are 25�aC and 10�aC. Quality of entrance is in the range of 0.1 ~0.9.
To analyze the data, the single-phase flow of bend tubes was compared with Ito (1960), Chen et.al (2002) and Wojtkowiak & Popiel (2000). The two-phase flow of straight tubes was compared with Fridedl (1979). The two-phase flow of bend tubes was compared with Geary (1975), Awward (1995) and Chen et.al (2002). Except Friedel, we found all anticipation equations are not good enough. Due to the difference of fluid, diameter of tubes and quality, the application of present anticipation equations is limited. There is not an exact anticipation equation up to now.
目 錄
中文摘要 …………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要 …………………………………………………………………ii
誌謝 …………………………………………………………………iv
目錄 ………………………………………………………………… v
表目錄 ………………………………………………………………… vii
圖目錄 ………………………………………………………………… viii
符號說明 ………………………………………………………………… x
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 研究背景……………………………………………………… 1
1.2 研究目的……………………………………………………… 2
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………… 5
2.1 兩相流流譜與流形型態種類………………………………… 5
2.2 直管單相流摩擦壓降………………………………………… 7
2.3 彎管單相流的摩擦因子……………………………………… 7
2.4 兩相壓降理論………………………………………………… 13
2.4.1 直管兩相流預測式…………………………………………… 13
2.4.2 彎管兩相流壓降預測式……………………………………… 19
第三章 實驗系統與分析方法………………………………………… 28
3.1 實驗系統設計原理…………………………………………… 28
3.1.1 冷媒質量流率量測…………………………………………… 28
3.1.2 測試段入口乾度量…………………………………………… 28
3.1.3 絕熱壓降之量測……………………………………………… 29
3.1.4 冷煤的飽和溫度、測試段入口溫度、測試段出口溫度量測 29
3.2 實驗系統設備………………………………………………… 30
3.2.1 冷媒循環系統………………………………………………… 30
3.2.2 冰水循環系統………………………………………………… 31
3.2.3 熱水循環系統………………………………………………… 31
3.3 實驗量測儀器………………………………………………… 31
3.3.1 電阻式溫度量測器-溫度量測……………………………… 31
3.3.2 電子式冷媒質量流量計-冷媒質量流率量測……………… 32
3.3.3 電磁式體積流量計-水流量量測…………………………… 32
3.3.4 被動式壓力轉換器-冷媒壓力量測………………………… 32
3.3.5 差壓計-量測冷媒壓降……………………………………… 32
3.3.6 資料蒐集器-HR2300………………………………………… 32
3.4 實驗過程……………………………………………………… 33
3.4.1 系統測漏……………………………………………………… 33
3.4.2 系統冷媒的填充……………………………………………… 33
3.4.3 實驗操作步驟………………………………………………… 34
3.5 實驗數據分析………………………………………………… 35
第四章 結果與討論…………………………………………………… 49
4.1 直管與彎管兩相單位米壓降………………………………… 49
4.2 直管單相流摩擦壓降與預測式比較………………………… 50
4.3 彎管單相流摩擦壓降與預測式比較………………………… 50
4.4 直管兩相流摩擦壓降與預測式比較………………………… 53
4.5 彎管兩相流摩擦壓降與預測式比較………………………… 54
第五章 結論…………………………………………………………… 76
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………… 78
自傳 ………………………………………………………………… 83
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