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研究生:李佳家
研究生(外文):Jia-jia Li
論文名稱:應用外語系定位策略思維
論文名稱(外文):A Strategic Mind for Departments of Applied Foreign Languages to Build up Competitive Positions
指導教授:賴志超賴志超引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-chao Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:英文
論文頁數:259
中文關鍵詞:高等教育行銷定位策略規劃願景與宗旨紮根理論
外文關鍵詞:vision and missionstrategic planningpositioninggrounded theoryMarketing for higher education
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摘 要
本研究目的在於,以質性研究一探台灣應用外語系對定位的認知與實行,以及定位認知實行帶來之影響。研究者鎖定2所應用外語系,經立意取樣,9位應用外語系教師、3位應用外語系畢業生、與55位應用外語系在學學生接受訪談。其中,教師與畢業生接受個人訪談,8組學生接受焦點團體訪談,9位教師中5位具行政經驗,受訪者總計67人。訪談皆採半結構式訪談法以實際探求受訪者之想法。研究者依訪談錄音帶與實地觀察札記作開放編碼、主軸編碼、與選擇編碼之分析(Strauss & Corbin, 1998)。根據研究者設計之定位標準,分析結果顯示應用外語系對定位的認知與實行不足。此一現象造成師生對系所定位不清,對訓練持疑慮,對競爭力擔憂,對前景無奈。應用外語系定位有待釐清,為改善現況並建立優勢地位,應用外語系行政人員與師資應經由行銷與策略管理的相關訓練建立定位策略思維。
ABSTRACT
The qualitative study was conducted to examine to what extent the concepts of positioning were understood and practiced by the departments of applied foreign languages (DAFLs) and whether the understanding and practice had an impact on the DAFLs. With purposive sampling, 9 faculty members, 3 graduates, and 8 groups of students from two DAFLs were interviewed. Among the 9 faculty members, 5 had DAFL administrative experiences. The interviewees totaled to 67 persons. The study adopted two forms of semi-structured interviews via pre-determined protocols. Faculty members and graduates received the qualitative research interviews whereas the focus group interviews were conducted for students. With the transcription and observational notes, data was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin’s (1998) open, axial, and selective coding process. Findings were evaluated in light of the positioning criteria designed by the researcher. The outcome suggested that the concepts of positioning were not appropriately understood and practiced. The deficiency in positioning understanding and practice incurred ambiguous daily beliefs, diffidence in training, worries about competitiveness, and helplessness about the future. The scenario further reiterated an uncertain position of the DAFLs. To improve the status quo and establish competitive positions, the DAFL administrators and faculty has to build up a strategic mind for positioning through education in marketing and strategic management.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ---------------------------------------------------------------- i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS--------------------------------------------------------- iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ------------------------------------------------------ v
LIST OF TABLES ---------------------------------------------------------- x
LIST OF FIGURES --------------------------------------------------------- xi

1.Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem ------------------------------------------ 8
1.2 The Purpose of the Study ------------------------------------------ 9
1.3 Research Question-------------------------------------------------- 9
1.4 Significance of the Study ----------------------------------------- 10
1.5 Definition of Terms ----------------------------------------------- 10
1.6 Limitations of the Study ------------------------------------------ 12

2.Review of the Literature ----------------------------------------------13
2.1 Marketing Concepts Defined ---------------------------------------- 13
2.1.1 The Definition of Marketing ------------------------------------ 13
2.1.2 The History of the Marketing Concepts -------------------------- 16
2.1.3 The Application of Marketing in Non-Profit Organization--------- 18
2.2 Marketing in Educational Institutions ---------------------------- 21
2.2.1 A Climate Different from the Business World -------------------- 21
2.2.2 The Evolution of Marketing by Educational Institutions --------- 23
2.2.3 The Reasons for Marketing Failures in Educational Institutions-- 25
2.3 The Importance of Strategic Thinking ------------------------------ 26
2.4 Strategy----------------------------------------------------------- 27
2.5 Positioning Concepts Defined -------------------------------------- 29
2.5.1 The Definition of Positioning ---------------------------------- 30
2.5.2 The History of Positioning ------------------------------------- 32
2.5.3 Positioning and Strategic Planning Process --------------------- 34
2.5.4 Positioning, Vision, and Mission ------------------------------- 38
2.5.5 Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning ----------------------- 43
2.5.6 Positioning, Values, and Organizational Culture----------------- 44
2.5.7 Positioning and Collaboration ---------------------------------- 46
2.5.8 Positioning Strategies in Business -----------------------------48
2.5.9 Positioning Strategies in Education ---------------------------- 53
2.5.10 Positioning and Marketing Mix --------------------------------- 55
2.6 Summary ----------------------------------------------------------- 56

3.Methodology ----------------------------------------------------------- 57
3.1 The Purpose of the Study ------------------------------------------ 57
3.2 The Difference between Quantitative and Qualitative Research-------57
3.3 The Rationale for Research Methods -------------------------------- 59
3.4 Research Interview and Focus Group Interview ---------------------- 59
3.5 Research Design --------------------------------------------------- 63
3.5.1 The Background of Institutions to be Studied ------------------- 63
3.5.2 Sample Selection ----------------------------------------------- 64
3.6 Data Collection --------------------------------------------------- 65
3.6.1 Data Collection for the Research Interviews--------------------- 65
3.6.2 Data Collection for the Focus Group Interviews ----------------- 66
3.7 Validity and Reliability ------------------------------------------ 67
3.7.1 Validity ------------------------------------------------------- 68
3.7.2 Reliability ---------------------------------------------------- 68
3.7.3 Validity and Reliability in the Study -------------------------- 69
3.8 Data Coding and Analysis Procedures -------------------------------70
3.8.1 Positioning Criteria ------------------------------------------- 71
3.8.2 Criteria for Positioning Understanding ------------------------- 71
3.8.3 Criteria for Positioning Practice ------------------------------ 72
3.9 Summary -----------------------------------------------------------72

4.Results -------------------------------------------------------------- 73
4.1 Open Coding ------------------------------------------------------- 73
4.1.1 Vision and Mission of Leadership ------------------------------- 73
4.1.1.1 Guiding Philosophy ------------------------------------------ 74
4.1.1.2 Training Goals ---------------------------------------------- 76
4.1.1.3 Attributes -------------------------------------------------- 78
4.1.1.4 Requirements for Admission ---------------------------------- 79
4.1.1.5 Career Markets for Students --------------------------------- 80
4.1.1.6 Vision ------------------------------------------------------ 81
4.1.2 Planning ------------------------------------------------------- 82
4.1.2.1 Planning Committee ------------------------------------------ 82
4.1.2.2 Program Planning Process------------------------------------- 85
4.1.2.3 Self- Audits and Performance Benchmarks --------------------- 89
4.1.3 Values and Attitudes ------------------------------------------- 92
4.1.3.1 Awareness of Competition ------------------------------------ 92
4.1.3.2 Will to Change ---------------------------------------------- 94
4.1.3.3 Sense of Differentiation ------------------------------------95
4.1.3.4 Consensus---------------------------------------------------- 100
4.1.3.5 Collaboration------------------------------------------------ 102
4.1.4 Daily Beliefs ------------------------------------------------- 103
4.1.4.1 The Faculty’s Daily Beliefs -------------------------------- 104
4.1.4.2 Students and Graduates’ Daily Beliefs ---------------------- 107
4.1.4.3 Reflections on the Website Information ---------------------- 111
4.1.4.4 Implementation of Vision and Mission ------------------------ 112
4.1.5 Training ------------------------------------------------------- 116
4.1.5.1 Why the DAFL ------------------------------------------------ 117
4.1.5.2 Background and performance ---------------------------------- 121
4.1.5.3 Interdisciplinary course design ----------------------------- 123
4.1.5.4 Faculty Capabilities ---------------------------------------- 127
4.1.5.5 Course Benefit----------------------------------------------- 129
4.1.5.6 Competitiveness --------------------------------------------- 130
4.2 Axial Coding ------------------------------------------------------ 134
4.2.1 Causal Condition and Phenomena---------------------------------- 135
4.2.2 Phenomenon: Vision and Mission of Leadership ------------------- 135
4.2.3 Phenomenon: Planning ------------------------------------------- 138
4.2.4 Phenomenon: Values and Attitudes ------------------------------- 140
4.2.5 Phenomenon: Daily Beliefs -------------------------------------- 142
4.2.6 Phenomenon: Training ------------------------------------------- 145
4.2.7 The Outcome of Axial Coding ------------------------------------ 148
4.3 Selective Coding---------------------------------------------------149
4.3.1 Storyline ------------------------------------------------------ 150
4.3.2 Core Category -------------------------------------------------- 155
4.3.3 Conceptual Model------------------------------------------------ 156
4.4 Summary------------------------------------------------------------ 157
5. Discussion ----------------------------------------------------------- 160
5.1 Revisiting the Purpose of the Study and Research Questions ------- 160
5.2 Exploration of the Sub-Questions----------------------------------- 161
5.3 Discussion Related to the Literature ------------------------------ 165
5.4 Implications ------------------------------------------------------ 168
5.4.1 Building up a Strategic Mind for Positioning ------------------- 168
5.4.2 Rethinking Vision and Mission ---------------------------------- 170
5.5 Recommendations --------------------------------------------------- 171
5.5.1 Effective Practice Recommendations ----------------------------- 171
5.5.2 Recommendations for Further Research --------------------------- 174
5.6 Endnote ----------------------------------------------------------- 176

References -------------------------------------------------------------- 178

Appendices -------------------------------------------------------------- 194
Appendix A: Analysis of University Mission Statements and Goals in Taiwan-194
Appendix B: A Summary of Appendix A ------------------------------------- 199
Appendix C: Sample School Websites -------------------------------------- 200
Appendix D: Strategic Marketing Planning Process ------------------------ 201
Appendix E: Elements of Mission ----------------------------------------- 202
Appendix F: STP Steps --------------------------------------------------- 203
Appendix G: Quantitative Style vs. Qualitative Style -------------------- 204
Appendix H: Respondents’ Background ------------------------------------ 205
Appendix I: Semi-Structured Interview Protocol for the DAFL Administrators and Faculty ----------------------------------------------------------------- 206
Appendix J: Semi-Structured Interview Protocol for Graduates ----------- 207
Appendix K: Participant Consent Form ------------------------------------ 208
Appendix L: Focus Group Protocol ---------------------------------------- 209
Appendix M: The Transcription Form---------------------------------------210
Appendix N: A Sample of Transcription with Labeling (a qualitative research interview)--------------------------------------------------------------- 211
Appendix O: A Sample of Transcription with Labeling (a focus group interview)- ------------------------------------------------------------------223
Appendix P: A Sample of a Collection of Related Themes after Labeling --- 236
Appendix Q: Vision, Reputation, and Positioning ------------------------- 242
VITA--------------------------------------------------------------------- 243
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中文書目
1.行政院經濟建設委員會人力規劃處 (2002),中華民國臺灣地區民國91年至140年人口推計。2002年11月13日取自線上資料: http://www.cepd.gov.tw/people/index.htm
2.江心坡 (2002), “大家結盟分大餅?從研究型大學之整合談起─教育部「推動研究型大學整合計劃」淺析”, 2002年3月26日,立報教育專題深入報導。2002年9月18日取自線上資料:http://iwebs.url.com.tw/main/html/lipo1/137.shtml
3.李曉莉(2002),先有哈佛,後有美國,李繁友主編,哈佛深呼吸,台北:大地。
4.李繁友主編(2002),哈佛深呼吸,台北:大地。
5.吳崇德 (2001), “從進入WTO談臺灣的高等教育”,商業職業教育季刊,83期,頁42-55。
6.洛友(2002),哈佛大學乃王者之紅,李繁友主編,哈佛深呼吸,台北:大地。
7.徐明珠 (2001a),“迎戰WTO之衝擊,順勢開拓教育版圖”,國家政策論壇,1卷,9期,頁152-154。2002年9月18日取自線上資料:http://www.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/EC/090/EC-P-090-048.htm
8.徐明珠 (2001b), “大陸留學熱方興未艾”,國政評論, 7月24日。民91年9月18日取自線上資料:http://www.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/EC/091/EC-C-091-119.htm
9.徐明珠 (2001c),“聯合大學特色模糊未必卓越”,聯合報民意論壇,2001年3 月 2日。2002年9月18日取自線上資料:http://www.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/EC/091/EC-C-091-038.htm
10.楊朝祥(2001), “大學教育不能「拜金」”,中央日報社論,2001年7月24日。2002年9月18日取自線上資料:http://www.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/EC/090/EC-P-090-023.htm
11.楊朝祥 (2002a), “大學招生破十萬之省思”,中央日報社論,2002年3月3日。2002年9月18日取自線上資料:http://www.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/EC/091/EC-B-091-010.htm
12.楊朝祥 (2002b),“大學百家爭鳴 獨特性決高下”, 中央日報教育天地,2002年3月15日,。民91年9月18日取自線上資料:http://www.npf.org.tw/PUBLICATION/EC/091/EC-B-091-015.htm
13.蔡瑤 (2001), “傳統下的獨白─談「應用外語」科系的未來走向”,技術及職業教育學報, 4卷, 4期,頁159-172,7月。
14.韓青秀 (2003), “明年大學錄取率110%”, 聯合晚報,2003年1月10日。2003年5月12日取自線上資料:
http://archive.udn.com/2003/1/10/NEWS/NATIONAL/NAT4/1152377.shtml
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