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研究生:郭彥彬
論文名稱:即時性封包的重新排程於光纖環狀接取網路上
論文名稱(外文):Real-Time Packet Rescheduling in WDM Ring Access Network
指導教授:黃依賢黃依賢引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:91
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:全光網路波長分割多工服務品質環狀接取網路重新排程
外文關鍵詞:All Optical NetworkWavelength Division MultiplexingQuality of ServiceRing Access NetworkRescheduling
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全光網路(All Optical Network)解決即時性封包通訊中網路頻寬的不足並且增加傳輸速率的關鍵技術。其中以波長分割多工(Wavelength Division Multiplexing,WDM)為最主要的技術,它不僅大大地提昇骨幹傳輸網路的頻寬、降低網路費用及網路傳輸控制的維護趨於簡單。然而,在高速網路上探討具有服務品質(Quality of Service,QoS)即時性(Real-Time)封包的傳送是一項重要的議題。本論文藉由記號(Token)的運用來保持整個環狀接取網路(Ring Access Network)資訊的一致性,並提及封包重新排程(Rescheduling)的方法來盡量達到其即時性封包的QoS,有記號的節點才能作重新排程動作,而沒有記號的節點只能傳送、接受及轉送資料。在此利用Priority-Differentiated Scheduling (PDS)演算法來處理即時性封包的問題,允許高優先權的即時性封包可以插隊到事先已排程好的低優先權的非即時性封包前傳送。本文結合兩個波長頻道選擇演算法來配合PDS演算法,稱為PEM (PDS-EAC-MTD)演算法,其中EAC (Earliest Available Channel)演算法應用於即時性封包的傳送,此演算法建立一條給即時性封包傳送的路徑。而另一個MTD (Minimum Time Difference)演算法應用於非即時性封包的傳送,其目的是節省非即時性封包傳送頻道的使用率並給予即時性封包較快速建立傳送路徑。模擬結果顯示在固定存取節點與固定頻道數而改變流量負載或是在固定存取節點與固定流量負載而改變頻道數下,PEM演算法所得到的平均延遲時間均比其他三者演算法(NPEM演算法、PEE演算法與EATS演算法)還來得好,而在固定存取節點與頻道數不同的情況下,含有MTD演算法者所測得的平均頻道使用率(Channel Utilization)會比不含MTD演算法者還來得高。

All optical networks have solved the problem of bandwidth insufficiency in the communication network and key technical issue of increasing the transmission speed. The most important technique is Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). It is not only increases the bandwidth of backbone transmission network significantly, but also decreases the network cost and makes the controlling and maintaining of transmission easy. However, it is an important issue to achieve real-time packets quality of service (QoS) on the high speed Internet. This paper uses token to maintain the information of whole Ring Access Network consistent, and it uses the rescheduling algorithm to achieve the QoS of real-time packets. The node only has the token is able to reschedule, while the rest nodes can only transmit, accept, and send information. We adopt the Priority-Differentiated Scheduling (PDS) algorithm to deal with the problem of real-time packets, and allow real-time packets with the high priority to get transmission first to insert the front line of the scheduling unreal-time packets with low priority. This paper combines two algorithms that are used to select wavelength and PDS algorithm to form PEM (PDS-EAC-MTD) algorithm. Within this, the Earliest Available Channel (EAC) algorithm is used for the transmission of real-time packets. It establishes the transmission path for real-time packets. The Minimum Time Difference (MTD) algorithm is used for the transmission of nonreal-time packets to save the channel utilization and let the path of real-time packets establish the path quickly. The simulation results show that as the access nodes and the number of channels are fixed, whereas traffic load and the number of channels are varied, the average delay time resulted from PEM algorithm is shorter than the other three algorithms (NPEM, PEE, and EATS). And when the access nodes are fixed and the number of channels is different, the channel utilization derived from algorithms with MTD is higher than those without MTD.

目錄
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
致謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 v
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 波長分割多工環狀接取網路 3
第一節 波長分割多工技術 3
第二節 環狀接取網路架構 4
第三節 記號環(Token Ring)和光纖分散數據介面(FDDI) 6
第三章 演算法介紹 9
第一節 PEM(PDS-EAC-MTD)演算法 9
第二節 運用 10
第三節 例子 13
第四章 模儗 16
第一節 模儗的環境與方式 16
第二節 模儗的結果 17
第五章 結論 23
參考文獻 24
圖目錄
圖一 波長分割多工技術圖 3
圖二 環狀接取網路架構圖 5
圖三 光塞取多工器架構圖 5
圖四 釋放記號方法圖 7
圖五 頻道(Channel)運用情形圖 11
圖六 所需資料表示意圖 11
圖七 資料表的運用圖 12
圖八 封包傳送流程圖 13
圖九 所假設存取節點要傳輸的封包資訊圖 13
圖十 使用PEM演算法的封包排程圖 14
圖十一 重新排程發生插隊的封包排程圖 14
圖十二 模擬環境架構圖 16
圖十三 高優先權封包平均延遲時間圖(固定Channel數) 17
圖十四 低優先權封包平均延遲時間圖(固定Channel數) 18
圖十五 總封包平均延遲時間圖(固定Channel數) 18
圖十六 高優先權封包平均延遲時間圖(固定總封包數) 20
圖十七 低優先權封包平均延遲時間圖(固定總封包數) 21
圖十八 總封包平均延遲時間圖(固定總封包數) 21
圖十九 四個演算法平均頻道的使用率(高:低=3:7)圖 21
圖二十 四個演算法平均頻道的使用率(高:低=5:5)圖 22

參考文獻
[1] R. Gaudino, M. Len, G. Desa, M. Shell, and D.J. Blumenthal, “MOSAIC: A Multiwavelength Optical Subcarrier Multiplexed controlled Network,” IEEE J. Select. Areas in Commun., Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 1020-1027, Sep. 1998.
[2] J.R. Kiniry, “Wavelength division multiplexing: ultra high speed fiber optics,” IEEE Internet Computing Volume: 2, Page(s): 13-15, March-April 1998.
[3] P.L. Chu and J. Diao, “Packet rescheduling in WDM star networks with real-time service differentiation,” Lightwave Technology, Journal of, Volume: 19, Issue: 12, Page(s): 1818—1828, Dec 2001.
[4] N. Takachio, H. Suzuki, M. Fujiwara, Jun-ichi Kani, K. Iwatsuki H. Yamada, T. Shibata and T. Kitoh, “Wide Area Gigabit Access Network Based on 12.5 GHz Spaced 256 Channel Super-dense WDM Technologies,” Electronics Lett., Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 309-311, Mar. 2001.
[5] S. Steinke, “Fundamentals of Optical Networking: Todays fiber optic systems support throughputs as high as 1 Tbit/sec,” Network Magazine, http://www.networkmagazine.com/article/NMG20000517S0145/2.
[6] A. Mariconda and S. Merli, “An optical Add-Drop Multiplexer (OADM) node architecture in a fully transparent self healing ring network,” 22nd European Conference on Optical Communication — ECOC’96, Oslo.
[7] F. Jia, B. Mukherjee and J. Iness, “Scheduling variable-length messages in a single-hop multichannel local lightwave network,” IEEE/ACM Transactions Networking, Vol. 3, pp. 477-488, Aug 1995.
[8] B. keepence, “Quality of service for voice over IP,” in Services Over the Internet─What Dose Quality Cost ?, ser. IEE Colloquium, 1999, (Ref. no. 1999/099), pp. 4/1-4/4.
[9] B. Li and Y. Qin, “Traffic scheduling with per VC QoS guarantee in WDM networks,“ in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM’98, 1998, pp. 339-344.
[10] R. Chipalkatti, Z. Zhang, and A. S. Acampora, “High speed communication protocols for optical star coupler network using WDM,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM’92, Florence, Italy, May 1992, pp. 2124-2133.
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