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研究生:鄭仲賢
研究生(外文):Cheng-Chung Hsien
論文名稱:基因重組之大腸桿菌之蛋白體研究
論文名稱(外文):Proteomic study on the recombinant strain of Escherichia coli
指導教授:李文乾
指導教授(外文):Wen-Chien Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:化學工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:蛋白體學大腸桿菌二維膠體電泳
外文關鍵詞:proteomicsEscherichia colitwo-dimensional gel electrophoresis
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摘 要
在了解到生物體內可以發揮大部份功能的重要物質是蛋白質後,蛋白質的研究與應用就成為後基因體時代發展的重點,蛋白質體學則成為一項重要的研究方法。大腸桿菌是最常被用來表現重組蛋白質的宿主細胞,其蛋白質的資料庫也持續更新而相當接近。
本研究是利用蛋白體學來分析宿主菌大腸桿菌(Escherichia coli BL21)以及含重組基因的大腸桿菌(Escherichia coli BL21含重組過的pGEX質體)有無誘導重組基因表現蛋白體的不同。同時也使用硝酸銀和二胺銀兩種銀染方法來偵測蛋白質; 研究發現二胺銀的方法可以偵測出較多的蛋白質,即靈敏度較高,但相較於二胺銀的方法,需要較久的操作時間和較大的藥品消耗量,膠片上的直紋和橫紋也比較多,會影響分析。在增加蛋白質回溶時間到5分鐘後,硝酸銀法可以偵測出的蛋白質點並不會比使用二胺銀法的方法少,為低分子量範圍(小於20K Da)的蛋白質點還是以二胺銀法能染出較多的點。所以綜合而言使用硝酸銀法有較多的優點。
在蛋白質鑑定的部份,已用ESI-MS/MS(Q-STAR)鑑定出膠片上的兩個蛋白質,gapA (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphatedehydrogenase,MW 35.2K Da , pI 6.58 )與dnaK (Chaperon Hsp70,MW 69K Da , pI 4.83)。其中gapA具有守護者蛋白質(houesekeeping protein)的特性,可以做為正規化因子,以更準確的比較蛋白質表現量的變化。
而重組菌(未誘導和誘導)所欲表現的目標蛋白質GST-nanA-Arg5在粗抽液的二維膠體電泳圖上並未發現,即使是將蛋白質分析的總量增加到500 μg也看不到。但是在經過純化的蛋白質溶液其二維膠體電泳及使用西方轉漬的結果都顯示有大量的目標蛋白質存在,西方轉漬的結果也顯示含GST的蛋白質不只一個。粗抽液中目標蛋白質為何沒出現以及西方轉漬所呈現的結果則需要更進一步的探討。
Abstract
The study and application of cellular proteins is the main field for research in the post-genome era proteomics provides a powerful tool for understanding the roles of proteins in an organism. Escherichia coli is most frequently as a host cell for the expression of recombinant proteins. Databases related to Escherichia coli updating and approaching to be complete.
This study is to analyze the differences of the proteomes of the host cell Escherichia coli BL21, induced and non-induced recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (including a recombinant plasmid). Alternatively, we used silver nitrate and silver diammine protocols to detect proteins and finding on the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels. We could detect more proteins by using silver diammine protocol. However, in contrast to silver nitrate protocol, the silver diammine protocol was time consuming and costly. Also, vertical and horizontal streaks were more observable and subject to interfere software analysis. The silver nitrate was thus superior. As the protein redissolving time is increasing to five minutes, the number of spots appeared on the gel was not less than that by using the method of silver diammine.
On 2-DE gels, we have identified two protein spots: gapA (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphatedehydrogenase,MW 35.2K Da , pI 6.58 ) and dnaK (Chaperon Hsp70,MW 69K Da , pI 4.83), by using LC-MS/MS. Protein gapA is one of the housekeeping proteins and can serve as the standard for the normalization of proteins for quantitative analysis.
We did not find the target protein: GST-nanA-Arg5 on both the 2-DE gels of proteins from induced and non-induced recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 cells, even when the amounts of proteins loaded to gels was increased to 500 μg. However, the presence of the target protein on the 2-DE gel of the purified protein was obvious, confirmed by western blotting. The result from western blotting implied that there were several proteins associated with GST tag. We need to investigate more detail on why the target protein in the original extracted solution did not show up on the 2-DE gel and to carry out the experiments of western blotting.
目錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
目錄……………………………………………………………………..Ⅴ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………...V
表目錄…………………………………………………………………VII
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………..1
1.1 研究動機與目的…………………………………………....1
1.2 研究原理……………………………………………………4
1.2.1蛋白質定量法…………………………………………4
1.2.2 IEF之研究原理……………………………………….4
1.2.3 SDS-PAGE之研究原理………………………………5
1.2.4 MALDI-TOF質譜研究原理………………………….6
1.3 文獻回顧…………………………………………………...…8
1.3.1 Isoelectric focusing……..………………………….…8
1.3.2 SDS-PAGE………………………………………..…10
1.3.3 銀染…………………………………………………11
1.3.4 二維電泳分析………………………………………13
1.3.5 蛋白膠內酵素水解…………………………………14
1.3.6 MALDI-TOF質譜儀………………………………...15
1.3.7 E.coli 的蛋白體…………………………………..…16
第二章 實驗藥品與設備……………………………………………....18
2.1 實驗藥品……………………………………………….….….18
2.1.1 Escherichia coli 培養以及蛋白質的保存…………...…18
2.1.2蛋白質濃度測定…………………………………………19
2.1.3 IPG strip之rehydration……………………………….…19
2.1.4 SDS-PAGE………………………………………………20
2.1.5銀染………………………………………………………21
2.1.5.1 二胺銀法(silver diammine)…………………………...20
2.1.5.2 硝酸銀法(silver nitrate)…………………….………...22
2.1.6 西方轉漬………………………………………….…….22
2.1.7 蛋白質膠內酵素水解…………………………………..24
2.1.8 peptide extraction………………………………………..24
2.1.9 Matrix製備…………………………………………..…..25
2.2 實驗設備……………………………………………………...26
第三章 實驗步驟與分析方法…………………………………………28
3.1 E. coli BL21的培養及蛋白質保存…………………………28
3.1.1 基因重組菌 E. coli BL21的培養……………………...29
3.1.2 宿主菌 E. coli BL21的培養………………………..….30
3.1.3有誘導之基因重組菌E. coli BL21 的培養……………31
3.2 蛋白質濃度測定……………………………………….….….31
3.2.1 檢量線製作……………………………………..………31
3.2.2 濃度測定…………………………………………….….31
3.3 等電點分離(IEF)………………………………….………32
3.4 SDS-PAGE…………………………………………………….33
3.5 銀染…………………………………………………………...35
3.5.1 硝酸銀法(Silver nitrate)………………………………….35
3.5.2 二胺銀法(silver diammine)………………………………36
3.6 軟體分析(PDquest)…………………………………………...38
3.7 西方轉漬……………………………………………………...39
3.8蛋白質膠內酵素水解…………………………………….……41
3.9 ZipTip純化……………………………………………………42
3.10 MALDI-TOF質譜分析………………………………………43
3.11電灑離子化串聯質譜儀(ESI-MS/MS)分析及蛋白質鑑定…44
第四章 實驗結果與討論………………………………………………45
4.1蛋白質濃度測定……………………………………………….45
4.2不同銀染方法之比較………………………………………….47
4.3 宿主菌以及有無誘導的重組菌之蛋白體的比較……………51
4.4 純化後之蛋白質溶液之二維電泳分析與西方轉漬………….60
4.5 大量蛋白質(加入量為500μg) ………………………………..63
4.6 MALDI-TOF 質譜分析……………………………………...64
4.7 蛋白質鑑定(protein identification)…………………………….67
第五章 結論與建議……………………………………………………68
參考文獻………………………………………………………………..71
附錄.A
附錄.B
圖目錄
圖1.1 蛋白質進行IEF時移動之示意圖(Dr. R A Rastall, 2000)……...5
圖1.2 strip與SDS-PAGE之操作示意圖……………………….………6
圖1.3 MALDI-TOF 質譜儀之原理示意圖…………………………......7
圖4.1 蛋白質檢量線……………………………………………….…..46
圖4.2誘導之重組菌蛋白質的二維電泳膠片以硝酸銀法染色..................................................................................................48
圖4.3 誘導之重組菌蛋白質的二維電泳膠片以二胺銀法染色
……………………………………………………………………49
圖4.4 誘導之重組菌蛋白體二維膠體電泳膠片以硝酸銀法染色……………………………………………………………….50
圖4.5 宿主菌的蛋白體二維電泳膠片以二胺銀法染色……….……..52
圖4.6 重組菌蛋白體之二維電泳膠片以二胺銀法染色……………...53
圖4.7 宿主菌蛋白體之二維電泳膠片以硝酸銀法染色……….……..54
圖4.8 重組菌蛋白體之二維電泳膠片以硝酸銀法染色的結果……...55
圖4.9 加入的蛋白質量為60 μg時,誘導之重組菌蛋白體二維電泳膠片以硝酸銀法染色……………………………………………..58
圖4.10加入的蛋白質量為70 μg時,誘導之重組菌蛋白體二維電泳膠片以硝酸銀法染色……………………………………………..59
圖4.11 純化後之蛋白質溶液的二維電泳分析圖以硝酸銀法染色 (蛋白質含量為(15μg)…………………………………………….60
圖4.12 西方轉漬圖,原始二維膠片來自圖4.13…………………….61
圖4.13 純化後蛋白質溶液之二維電泳膠片使用硝酸銀法,西方轉漬轉印之原始膠片………………………………………………61
圖4.14 樣品加入量為500 μg時,誘導之重組菌的蛋白體二維電泳圖以硝酸銀法染色……………………………………………....63
圖4.15 蛋白質點2之MALDI-TOF質譜圖………………………...65
圖4.16 蛋白質點3之MALDI-TOF質譜圖………………………...65
圖4.17 二維膠片電泳圖中蛋白質點1-4的位置…………………...67
表目錄
表3.1 LB medium………………………………………………………28
表3.2 Low salt washing buffer………………………………………….28
表3.3 Stock buffer………………………………………………………28
表3.4 lysis buffer………………………………………………………..29
表3.5 IEF之program…………………………………………………...33
表3.6配製12.5﹪Separating gel之配方…………………………….....35
表3.7西方轉漬所需buffer………………………………………….…39
表3.8 ZipTip所需溶液…………………………………………...…….42
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