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研究生:林川田
論文名稱:捨人為己--群際歧別與自尊間關係的整合性分析
指導教授:陳振宇陳振宇引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:54
中文關鍵詞:群際歧別自尊整合分析
外文關鍵詞:Intergroup discriminationSelf-esteemMeta-analysis
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群際歧別的態度和行為是否有助於提升個體的自尊?這個問題在文獻中有許多的探討,卻「是」與「否」的答案都有,一直沒有定論。Rubin與Hewstone (1998) 以傳統的方式歸納這些研究,發現得到「是」的答案的研究數量比得到「否」的答案的研究數量稍多(18比13),據此,他們認為群際歧別的態度和行為確實有助於提升個體的自尊。這種文獻歸納的方式並不科學,所提供的知識也有限。本研究嘗試以整合性分析的方式,將相關的34個研究的研究結果(共61個效果量估計值)進行量化的統整,並探究造成過去研究結果歧異的可能原因。結果顯示:群際歧別雖然可以顯著地提升自尊,但是效果並不大(平均效果量 r = 0.17,95% 信賴區間為 0.12∼0.21)。另外,過去研究結果歧異的原因主要是來自(一)誘發歧別的團體情境有異、及(二)自尊測量方式不同。採用真實團體情境的研究(r = .19)所得到的效果量會顯著高於採用最小團體情境的研究(r = .13)。群際歧別對整體個人自尊 (r = 0.18)、整體社會自尊 (0.22) 和特殊社會自尊所產生的影響 (0.21) 比較大,而對特殊個人自尊 (0.01) 的影響則微不足道。最後,本研究發現是否同時操弄其他相關變項或採用不同研究設計並非造成過去研究結果不一致的原因。
Does intergroup discrimination enhance self-esteem? There are lots of pros and cons in the literatures, but a consistent conclusion is lacked. Rubin & Hewstone (1998) have tried to integrate the past results in their traditional narrative review and have found more supportive evidence than unsupportive one (18 versus 13). They claim this result supports the conclusion that intergroup discrimination DOES enhance one’s self-esteem. In this study a meta-analysis procedure is conducted to integrate 34 statistical results of related researches (61 estimates of effect size) in a quantitative way. The purpose is to summary these results and to discover the possible sources of discrepancy among them. The meta-analysis shows that inter- group discrimination has a significant but weak impacts on self-esteem (overall r = 0.17, 95% confidence interval is from 0.12 to 0.21). In the other hand, discrepancy are found to come from (a) different group context and (b) different measurements of self-esteem. Studies examine the relation between discrimination and self-esteem in the real group context receive greater effect ( r = 0.19) than studies conducted in the minimal group context ( r = 0.13). Discrimination causes stronger impact on global personal ( r = 0.18)、global social ( r = 0.22) and specific social ( r = 0.21) self-esteem than specific personal self-esteem ( r = 0.01). By the way, result shows that the confounding variables and research designs cause no difference among the effect size estimates.
導  論 7
群際歧別的社會心理學研究:文獻回顧 8
社會認同理論 8
社會認同、群際歧別與自尊假設 10
社會認同理論中的自尊假設衍論 12
自尊假設衍論的實徵證據 13
本研究的看法 17
群際歧別的脈絡 17
群際歧別的形式 19
群際歧別所影響的自尊層面 20
整體vs特殊自尊 20
狀態vs特質自尊 20
個人vs 社會自尊 21
其他因素 21
本研究採取的研究取向:整合性分析 23
本研究的目的與研究問題 25
研 究 方 法 27
文獻蒐集與篩選 27
資料計算與過錄 29
效果量的推導與計算 29
注意事項 30
研究特性的判斷與登錄 31
資料整合與統計分析 35
研 究 結 果 36
整體結果 36
團體情境的影響 36
歧別形式的影響 37
自尊類型的影響 37
混淆變項的影響 38
研究設計的影響 39
樣本大小的影響 39
各項調節變項之間的關係 40
綜合討論 41
歸納本研究的發現與貢獻 41
未來研究方向 43
自尊改變的歷程 43
歧別的正負不對稱 44
真實團體情境中的影響因素 45
個別差異的影響 45
結 論 46
參考文獻 47
參考文獻
* 表示納入整合分析中的研究。
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