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研究生:廖素慧
研究生(外文):Su-huei Liao
論文名稱:國中英語教科書發音範疇及順序之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Scope and Sequence of Pronunciation in Junior High School English Textbooks
指導教授:林麗菊林麗菊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lichu Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:外國語文研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:150
中文關鍵詞:發音教科書
外文關鍵詞:Pronunciationtextbook
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隨著九年一貫於民國九十一年實施之後,選擇適合學生學習及教師使用的教材已成為教師的一大考驗。本研究目的旨在探討國中英語教科書發音部分的範疇及順序,並以Littlejohn(1998)所提出的三個層次的分析作為研究架構的依據。
研究結果不僅顯示了教科書中發音部分涵蓋的範疇及順序,同時也指出在使用這些教材時學生的定位。研究發現指出:字音結合拼讀法及重音、韻律節奏為主要教學內容;且教材發音部分編列之順序主要以字音結合拼讀法為起點。學生乃透過口說及辨識發音的規則形式為主要的練習活動。
本研究根據上述結果加以討論,並指出教科書中發音部分的角色、教師及學生的角色、以及教科書本身的角色,以供教材編寫者及教學者作為教材編寫及教學之參考;另外也提供未來研究上之建議。
Along with the 9-Year Joint Curricula practiced in 2002, it has become a substantial task for schoolteachers to select appropriate textbooks for students to learn and for teachers to teach. This study aims to investigate the scope and sequence of pronunciation in four currently used junior high school English textbooks. The framework for analysis of the textbooks is based on Littlejohn’s (1998) three levels of analysis─what is there, what is required of users, and what is implied.
The results revealed the principles of the scope and sequence of pronunciation in the textbooks as well as student roles in using the textbooks. Findings indicated that phonics and stress and rhythm constructed the majority of the scope. Phonics instruction was allocated as the starting point of the sequence. Students would be expected to engage in the tasks mainly through oral production and discrimination of sounds, rules, or patterns.
Drawing on the findings of the study, implications on the role of pronunciation in the textbooks, role of teachers and students, and role of textbooks were provided for the material designers and teachers. Further research in this area involving the evaluation of pronunciation in English textbooks was suggested.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………….……i
Abstract (English)…………………………………………………………...…ii
Abstract (Chinese)………………………………………………………….….iii
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………....iv
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………..xi
List of Figures……………………………………………………...….……...xiii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………………………………1
I. Motivation……………………………………………………………..….1
II. Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………. 3
III. Research Questions……………………………………….…………….. 4
IV. Definition of Key Terms…………………………………….………….. 5
A. Pronunciation…………………………………………………………. 5
B. Segmentals……………………………………………………………. 5
C. Suprasegmentals…………………………………………………….... 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………7
I. Overview of Pronunciation Teaching….………………………….……….7
II. The Importance of Pronunciation Teaching………………….…………10
III. Challenges to Pronunciation Teaching and Learning…………………..12
IV. Scope Related to Pronunciation………………………………………...15
A. Phonemic Awareness.…………………………………………………15
B. Phonics………………………………………………………………..17
C. Segmentals vs. Suprasegmentals……………………………………..21
1. Segmentals…………………………………………………..….….21
2. Suprasegmentals………………………………………………….. 23
3. Segmentals vs. Suprasegmentals: Pedagogical Debates…………24
D. Pronunciation Teaching and Material Design: A Communicative Approach ……………………………….……………………….……27
1. Elements for Pronunciation Teaching With a Communicative Approach.……….……………………………….28
2. Elements for Pronunciation Material Design With a Communicative Approach…………….…………………………..29
V. Criteria for the Sequence of Pronunciation Teaching…………………...30
A. Aspects on Learners’ Comprehensibility and Fluency……………….31
B. The Needs of Learners.………………………………………………32
C. Teachability…………………………………………………………..32
D. Common Pronunciation Problems and Problems of ChineseSpeakers…………………………………………………………….…35
1. Vowels…………………………………………………………….37
2. Consonants………………………………………………………..37
3. Stress and Rhythm………………………………………………..40
4. Intonation …………………………………………………………40
5. Contractions……………………………………………………….41
6. Linking…………………………………………………………….41
E. Implementing the Criteria to EFL Students in Taiwan………………..42
1. For Beginning Level Students..………………………………….…43
2. For Intermediate Level Students………………………..………….44
VI. Language Teaching Materials Evaluation……………………………..46
A. Issues Related to an Evaluation Study………………………………..47
B. A Framework for the Analysis of Language Teaching Materials……48
1. What is There………………………………………………...…….49
2. What is Required of Users………………………………………...49
3. What is Implied……………………………………………………50
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY……………………………………52
I. Research Design………………………………………………………….52
II. Materials……………………………………………………….………..54
III. Procedures for Data Collection and Analysis………………….……....56
A. Data Collection………………………………………………………...56
B. Data Analysis…………………………………………………………..57
1. Lessons……………………………………………………………..58
2. Scope……………………………………………………………….58
3. Sequence……………………………………………………………60
4. Examples……………………………………………………………62
5. Tasks….……………………………………………………………..63
C. Report of Results and Discussion……………………………………..65
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…………………….…..67
I. Results…………………………………………………………………….67
A. Analysis of Lessons…………………………………………………..67
1. Number of Lessons…………………………………………………68
2. Percentage of Total Lessons Dealt with Pronunciation………….....69
B. Analysis of Scope……………………………………………………...70
1. Five Aspects………………………………………………………..70
2. Segmentals vs. Suprasegmentals…………………………………..75
3. The Implementation of Important Elements of PronunciationFeatures……………………………..……………………………..76
C. Analysis of Sequence..………………………………………………..80
1. Sequence of Pronunciation Components…………………………..80
2. Sequence of Five Aspects………………………………………….84
D. Analysis of Examples…………………………………………………85
1. Phonological Levels………………………………………………..85
2. Graphic Cues……………………………………………………….86
E. Analysis of Tasks……………………………………………………...87
1. Type of Tasks…………...………………………………………….89
2. Language Skills: Perceptive vs. Productive………………………..90
II. DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………91
A. Major Findings………………………………………………………..92
B. Further Discussion………………………………………...………….96
1. What is There…………………………………..……………….….96
2. What is Required of Users…………………………………….….101
3. What is Implied……..…………………………………………….103
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS………………109
I. Conclusions……………………………………………………………...109
II. Implications……………………...……………………………………..110
A. Role of Pronunciation in the English Textbooks…………………....111
B. Role of Teachers and Students………………………………………114
C. Role of Textbooks…………………………………………………...115
III. Limitations of the Study………………………………………………..116
IV. Further Research………………………………………………………..117
References…………………………………………………………….…..….119
Appendix A……………………………………………..……………………125
Appendix B-1……..………………………………………………..………...126
Appendix B-2……..………………………………………………………….127
Appendix B-3……..………………………………………………………….128
Appendix B-4……..………………………………………………………….129
Appendix B-5……..………………………………………………………….130
Appendix B-6……..………………………………………………………….131
Appendix B-7……..………………………………………………………….132
Appendix B-8……..……………………………………………………….....133
Appendix B-9……..………………………………………………………….134
Appendix B-10……..………………………………………………………...135
Appendix B-11……..………………………………………………………...136
Appendix B-12……..………………………………………………………...137
Appendix B-13……..………………………………………………………...138
Appendix B-14……..………………………………………………………...139
Appendix B-15……..………………………………………………………...140
Appendix B-16……..………………………………………………………...141
Appendix B-17……..………………………………………………………...142
Appendix B-18……..………………………………………………………...143
Appendix B-19……..………………………………………………………...144
Appendix B-20……..………………………………………………………...145
Appendix C…………………………………………………………………..146
Appendix D…………………………………………………………………..147
Appendix E…………………………………………………………………...148
Appendix F…………………………………………………………………...149
Appendix G…………………………………………………………………..150
Table 2.1 Common Pronunciation Problems and Problems of Chinese Speakers……………………………………………….. 36
Table 3.1 Example of the Inventory of Components Related to Pronunciation…………………………………………….……... 57
Table 3.2 Example of the Tally of Five Aspects………………………………59
Table 3.3 Example of the Sequence of Pronunciation Components in Four Textbooks…………………………………………………..61
Table 3.4 Example of the Sequence of Five Aspects in Four Textbooks……...61
Table 3.5 Example of the Breakdown of Tasks………………………………..65
Table 3.6 Example of the Summary of Major Findings………..……………..66
Table 4.1 Number of Lessons in Four Textbooks……………….…….………68
Table 4.2 The Implementation of Important Elements of Pronunciation Features in Four Textbooks……………………….………………..77
Table 4.3 Sequence of Pronunciation Components in Four Textbooks……….83
Table 4.4 Sequence of Five Aspects in Four Textbooks………………………84
Table 4.5 Breakdown of the Tasks in Four Textbooks………………………..88
Table 4.6 Number of Tasks: Perceptive vs. Productive…………….…………90
List of Tables
Table 4.7 Major Findings─What is There……………………………………94
Table 4.8 Major Findings─What is Required of Users……...……………….95
Table 4.9 Major Findings─What is Implied...………………………………..95
Fig. 2.1 Teachability / Communicative Importance Scale………………….….34
Fig. 3.1 Research Design of the Study…………………………………….….. 55
Fig. 3.2 Example of Bar Graphs…..………………………...…………….……62
Fig. 4.1 Percentage of Total Lessons Dealt with Pronunciation………….…….70
Fig. 4.2 Percentage of Five Aspects Presented in Joy…………………………..71
Fig. 4.3 Percentage of Five Aspects Presented in Knsh…………………..…….72
Fig. 4.4 Percentage of Five Aspects Presented in Longman…………………....72
Fig. 4.5 Percentage of Five Aspects Presented in Nan-I………………………..73
Fig. 4.6 Comparison of Five Aspects Presented in Four Textbooks…..……......74
Fig. 4.7 Percentage of Segmentals vs. Suprasegmentals…………….…………76
Fig. 4.8 Percentage of Isolated Words vs. Phrases/Sentences…………….…....86
Fig. 4.9 Percentage of the Using of Graphic Cues……………………….……..87
Fig. 4.10 Percentage of Perceptive Skills vs. Productive Skills…………….….91
List of Figures
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