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研究生:劉文浩
論文名稱:台灣長期失業問題與就業政策之初探
指導教授:周玟琪周玟琪引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:勞工研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:台灣長期失業者新協定計畫就業政策
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台灣地區自1996年失業率突破2%以後,失業問題開始成為政府沉重的負荷;自1999年開始,不但失業率持續惡化,長期失業問題也慢慢浮現。
本研究係使用次級資料分析法,資料來源為行政院主計處1996-2002年所做的「人力資源調查」與「人力運用調查」之原始統計資料檔,運用描述性統計來了解台灣長期失業者之特徵、組成、變遷與趨勢。其次,使用文獻分析法,透過國內外相關文獻之蒐集彙整,目的是了解西方國家與台灣處理長期失業者之相關就業政策與方案。
研究結果發現,台灣長期失業者人數近年來快速激增,由1990年約9,013人,成長到2002年的105,506人,12年內成長約11.7倍。近年來所成長的台灣長期失業者主要集中在男性、低教育程度、中高齡、已婚者、非自願失業者以及工業部門藍領勞工。
經由國外文獻整理得知,歐洲國家自1970年代就開始面臨長期失業問題,已累積近30年的政策經驗。目前的就業政策趨勢是強調供給面取向勞動市場政策,也就是提升長期失業者的就業能力;創造就業機會方面,強調「地區性」小規模的創造就業機會,並且將工作機會鎖定在中高齡、低教育程度等特別難以就業的對象。此外,大多數國家開始重視對長期失業者的就業諮商,因應個別失業者的需求提供個別化的服務。英國自1998年始針對25歲以上的長期失業者所施行長期失業者新協定計畫(New Deal for Long Term Unemployed),經由統計資料顯示,此政策對於英國長期失業問題確實產生成效。
最後,根據前述研究發現,擬定台灣長期失業政策之芻議。主要建議為:1.將公共資源作有效的分配,並且要鎖定在弱勢的長期失業者,避免產升無謂損失。2.要建立就業安全體制與各就業政策方案間緊密的連結,使政策發揮最大成效。3.以再就業為前提,保障長期失業者及其家庭的最低生活維持。
Taiwan’s unemployment rate has broken through 2 percent since 1996. In other words, unemployment has been a heavy burden to our government. Moreover, unemployment rate continuously went up and long-term unemployment emerged gradually from 1999.
In the beginning, this study uses secondary analysis of surveys. In addition, the data origins from the original statistic data file of Manpower Survey and Manpower Utilization which Survey Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting & Statistics made during the year 1990 to the year 2002. Also, the author uses descriptive statistics to get to know the characteristic, component, passage and trend of Taiwan’s long-term unemployment. Secondly, this study makes use of Document Analysis approach. In other words, the author compiles and organizes all relevant literature from the internal and the external to understand the different employment policies and programs towards long-term unemployment in the western countries and in Taiwan.
According to the data above, the author concludes that the population of long-term unemployment in Taiwan has risen dramatically in recent years. In 1990, the population of long-term unemployment in Taiwan is about 9,013. However, it grows up to 105,506 in 2002. In fact, the population of long-term unemployment in Taiwan has grown 11.7 times in these twelve years. Furthermore, the increase of Taiwan’s long-term unemployment has mainly concentrated on male, half-educated people, married people, people who reach middle age or old age, involuntary unemployment and blue-collar workers in industrial departments for recent years.
Through reviewing foreign literature in this field, the authors generalizes that European countries has begun to face the problem of long-term unemployment since 1970 and they also have accumulated near thirty-year experience regarding labor policy. As a matter of fact, the employment policies for most European countries belonged to supply-side-oriented approaches of labor market policies. In other words, the goal of those policies was to strengthen the employability of those people who suffered from long-term unemployment. On the perspective of job creation programs, those programs primarily laid stress on creating local job opportunities. Besides, those programs offered job opportunities to the people who had difficulties to find job, such as half-educated people, people on the middle or old age, etc. In addition, most countries began to put emphasis on the employment counseling for people who suffered from long-term unemployment. Moreover, they provided jobless people with personalized service. Sine 1998, Britain government began to execute the project called “New Deal for Long Term Unemployed” towards long-term unemployed persons of 25 and above 25. Also, statistical data indicated that this policy indeed producing the intended effect on long-term unemployment.
According to the findings of this study, the author makes a draft proposal of Taiwan’s long-term unemployment policy. The primary suggestions are as follows: 1. Design employment service process especially for long-term unemployed persons and make the relevant employment policy and plan. 2. Distribute public resource efficiently and enable long-term unemployed persons to obtain enough assistance. 3. Offer unemployment assistance to assure that long-term unemployed persons and their families can live at subsistence level. This suggestion presupposes that re-employment.
目錄
第一章 緒論-------------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機---------------------------------------------1
第二節 研究目的---------------------------------------------4
第三節 研究方法---------------------------------------------5
第四節 章節安排---------------------------------------------8第二章 文獻回顧---------------------------------------------9
第一節 長期失業者的定義-------------------------------------9
第二節 國外長期失業問題之概況-------------------------------9
第三節 長期失業者的特徵------------------------------------12
第四節 長期失業者的成因------------------------------------15
第五節 長期失業者的社會後果--------------------------------17
第三章 西方國家解決長期失業問題的政策與方案----------------22
第一節 西方國家積極性勞動市場政策之概況--------------------22
第二節 英國勞動市場政策之改革------------------------------32
第三節 英國長期失業者新協定計畫----------------------------46
第四節 長期失業新協定計畫成果評估--------------------------51
第五節 瑞典勞動市場政策之改革------------------------------59
第四章 台灣長期失業現象之分析------------------------------64
第一節 台灣長期失業問題之概況------------------------------64
第二節 長期失業者的基本特徵描述----------------------------66
第三節 長期失業發生率---------------------------------------80
第五章 台灣長期失業政策之檢討與芻議------------------------87
第一節 長期失業者與就業安全體系---------------------------87
第二節 台灣長期失業者與積極勞動市場政策-------------------95
第三節 台灣長期失業問題政策與方案之芻議------------------101
第六章 研究結論與建議-------------------------------------110
第一節 研究結論-------------------------------------------110
第二節 研究建議-------------------------------------------114
參考文獻----------------------------------------------------118
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