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研究生:陳美秀
研究生(外文):Chen, Mei-hsiu
論文名稱:「向」之語意延伸及其近似同義詞的認知研究
論文名稱(外文):A Cognitive Approach to the Meaning Extension of Xiang and its Near-synonyms
指導教授:張榮興張榮興引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, Jung-hsing
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:語意多義詞近似同義詞
外文關鍵詞:Chinese semanticspolysemynear-synonym
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本論文旨在探討認知機制(cognitive processes)和動態事件(motion event)的主要成分對中文多義詞的形成及近似同義詞的分布所造成的影響,主要討論三個議題。第一個議題討論中文多義詞「向」之眾多意義間錯綜複雜的關係。本文認為「向」最早擁有的造字義透過五種認知機制(語意擴大、跨越狀態、突顯、隱喻、觀察點的轉移)而延伸出許多不同的意義,形成關係緊密的語意網狀系統(semantic network)。
第二個議題討論為何「向」可同時用來標示目標(goal)及來源(source)兩個相對的意義。本文認為這兩個相對意義的形成是由於意象圖示中的觀察點轉移所造成的:當觀察點從主體位移的起點轉移到主體位移的終點時,「向」由標示主體位移的終點(目標)轉變為標示主體位移的起點(來源),因而產生了兩個相對的意義。
第三個議題討論哪些因素會影響「向」之近似同義詞的分布。當「向」用來標示目標時,它是「對、跟、朝、往」的近似同義詞;當「向」用來標示來源時,它是「跟、從、由、自」的近似同義詞。本文認為標示目標的近似同義詞(對、跟、向、朝、往)和標示來源的近似同義詞(跟、向、從、由、自)的分布與主體(Figure)、參照物體(Ground)和範疇領域(domain)相關:第一、在被描述的事件中,主體是否位移及有位移的主體是否到達位移的終點,第二、參照物體是否為地點,第三、範疇領域是空間域、時間域或是心理域。

Based on the idea that cognitive processes and the central components of a motion event play an important role in linguistic analysis, this thesis focuses on three main issues. The first issue is concerned with the intertwined relations between the various meanings of the Chinese polysemous word xiang and how these different meanings are extended from the original meaning found in ancient Chinese texts. The relations between these meanings can be accounted for in terms of five cognitive processes: generalization, extendability across motive states, profile, metaphor, and change of perspective point, which constitute the links within the semantic network of xiang.
The second issue is concerned with why xiang has two opposite meanings, i.e., goal marker and source marker. It is proposed that the two opposite meanings result from a change of perspective point in a given schema. That is, by changing the perspective point from the starting point of the Figure's movement to the endpoint of the Figure's movement, the Figure, which moves from the starting point to the endpoint, is changed from being seen as leaving the observer to being seen as getting closer to the observer.
The last issue is concerned with the factors determining the different distributions of the near-synonyms associated with xiang. When xiang is used to mark goal NPs, it is the near-synonym of dui, gen, chao, and wang, while when it is used to mark source NPs, it is the near-synonym of gen, cong, you, and zi. It is suggested that the different distributions of the five goal markers (dui, gen, xiang, chao and wang) and the five source markers (gen, xiang, cong, you and zi) can be accounted for in terms of Figure, Ground, and domain. That is, their distribution can be explained according to (a) whether the Figure undergoes a change of location or not and whether the dynamic Figure has reached the endpoint of the Figure's movement or not, (b) whether the Ground denotes a location or a non-location, and (c) whether the domain is the spatial domain, the temporal domain or the psychological domain.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vi
ABSTRACT vii
CHINESE ABSTRACT viii
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Organization of the thesis 5
Chapter 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 From words to meanings: Semasiology 7
2.2.1 Metonymy, metaphor, specialization, and generalization 8
2.2.2 Profile 15
2.2.3 Perspective point 17
2.3 From meanings to words: Onomasiology 19
2.3.1 Components of a motion event 19
2.3.2 Near-synonyms denoting spatial relations 22
2.4 Concluding remarks 24
Chapter 3 MEANING EXTENSION OF XIANG 25
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 The spatial static schema of xiang 27
3.3 Dynamic schemas of xiang 33
3.3.1 The spatial dynamic schema of xiang 34
3.3.2 The temporal dynamic schema of xiang 40
3.3.3 The psychological dynamic schema of xiang 45
3.3.4 Summary 50
3.4 The position of perspective point vs. the meaning extension of xiang 51
3.4.1 The temporal dynamic schema with the perspective point at the endpoint 53
3.4.2 The spatial dynamic schema with the perspective point at the endpoint 58
3.5 The opposite meanings of xiang 61
3.6 The semantic network of xiang 64
3.7 Concluding remarks 66
Chapter 4 NEAR-SYNONYMS OF XIANG 67
4.1 Introduction 67
4.2 Words used to mark goal NPs and source NPs 69
4.3 Differences between the goal markers 70
4.3.1 The relationship between goal markers and the static Figure 71
4.3.1.1 In the spatial domain 71
4.3.1.2 In the psychological domain 74
4.3.1.3 Summary 75
4.3.2 The relationship between goal markers and the dynamic Figure 75
4.3.2.1 The dynamic Figure (the Figure has not reached the endpoint) 77
4.3.2.1.1 In the spatial domain 77
4.3.2.1.2 In the temporal domain 78
4.3.2.1.3 In the psychological domain 79
4.3.2.1.4 Summary 79
4.3.2.2 The dynamic Figure (the Figure moves toward and then reaches the endpoint) 80
4.3.3 The relationship between goal markers and Ground 82
4.3.4 Summary 86
4.4 Differences between the source markers 88
4.4.1 The relationship between source markers and the dynamic Figure 89
4.4.1.1 The dynamic Figure (the Figure has not reached the endpoint) 91
4.4.1.1.1 In the spatial domain 92
4.4.1.1.2 In the temporal domain 93
4.4.1.1.3 In the psychological domain 94
4.4.1.1.4 Summary 94
4.4.1.2 The dynamic Figure (the Figure moves toward and then reaches the endpoint) 94
4.4.1.2.1 In the spatial domain 95
4.4.1.2.2 In the temporal domain 96
4.4.1.2.3 Summary 97
4.4.2 The relationship between source markers and Ground 97
4.4.3 Summary 99
4.5 Concluding remarks 100
Chapter 5 CONCLUSION 102
REFERENCES 108

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