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研究生:李淑芬
論文名稱:高中英文專家教師教學專業知識與課堂教學之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Pedagogical Knowledge And Classroom Practices of Expert English Teachers in Senior High School
指導教授:施鴻瑜施鴻瑜引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:致遠管理學院
系所名稱:教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:140
中文關鍵詞:高中英文專家教師教學專業知識課堂教學
外文關鍵詞:senior high schoolexpert English teacherpedagogical knowledgeclassroom practices
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中文摘要
本研究之目的在探討兩位高中英文專家教師之教學專業知識及課堂教學,了解其課堂教學如何受教學專業知識的影響,以及探索其教學專業知識的來源。以多重個案之研究架構為基礎,利用教室觀察、半結構訪談、文件分析等方法搜集兩個個案的資料,為期約八個月。本研究先分別呈現兩個個案之結果再做跨個案之結論。
本研究之主要發現如下:
1. 專家教師具有豐富且統整的教學專業知識,並將之應用於課堂教學。
2. 專家教師的課堂教學大多以其學科知識、學習者知識、 課程知識及教學策略為基礎。此四層面之知識彼此互動且影響其教學。
3. 專家教師之知識來源為教學經驗、同事互動、研習、教室觀察、自行研究、省思以及其它的資料等。其中以省思為最重要之因素。
4. 專家教師的課堂教學能讓學生參與並注重聽說讀寫四方面能力的培養。
5. 專家教師具有共同的特點,但在教學模式及教學風格有所不同。
本論文最後依研究發現並分別對高中英文教師、師資培育機構、學校及未來之研究提出一些建議。對高中英文教師的建議是:利用各種管道充實本身之教學專業知識作為課堂教學之基礎。在課堂教學方面,宜讓學生積極參與、兼重四種技能之培養,注意學生之進步情形,適時加以鼓勵並給予適切之學習任務,英文教師本身宜經常加以省思。對師資培育機構的建議是:強化學生教學專業知能,多觀察專家教師之教學。對學校之建議是:提供初任教師及資淺教師觀察專家教師教學之機會,並建立專家教師之知識庫。對未來研究之建議是:可增加觀察之時間及研究對象或探討英文專家教師在教學之任一層面的認知與做法。
Abstract
This study aims to explore pedagogical knowledge and classroom practices of two expert English teachers in a private senior high school, to understand how their classroom practices are influenced by their pedagogical knowledge, and to investigate the sources by which they have been constructing their pedagogical knowledge for effective teaching. On the basis of the design of multiple-case study, this study adopted qualitative research method to collect and analyze data.
The research findings from the two cases are as follows:
1. The expert English teachers own rich and integrated knowledge and can apply to their classroom practices.
2. The expert English teachers’ classroom practices are mostly based on content knowledge, knowledge about learners, curriculum knowledge, and teaching strategies. The four domains of knowledge interact with each other and have an impact on their classroom practices.
3. Their pedagogical knowledge is from teaching experience, colleagues’ interaction, workshops, observations, self-study, reflection, and other materials. Of the sources, their reflection is the most powerful factor.
4. Expert teachers involve their students and value the development of the four skills.
5. The two expert English teachers have characteristics in common, but they are different in pedagogical model and teaching style.
At the end of this thesis, recommendations based on the findings are offered. For the senior high school English teachers, it is recommended that English teachers should 1) enrich pedagogical knowledge; 2) involve students in class; 3) facilitate students the four skills; 4) monitor students’ progress; 5) encourage students; 6) give students appropriate learning tasks. For teacher education institute, it is suggested that student teachers should be equipped with pedagogical knowledge and are provided with ample opportunities for observing expert English teachers’ teaching. For senior high school, it is recommended that beginning teachers and inexperienced teachers should be provided with opportunities for observing expert teachers’ instructions to sharpen their skills, and part of expert teachers’ knowledge base can be built. For the future study, the perspective researcher can increase time and subjects. Or, the researcher can explore expert English teachers’ knowledge and practice about one of the dimensions of teaching.
Table of Contents
Page
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………...1
1.1 Background and Motivation….……...…………………………………………....1
1.2 Purpose of the Study and Research Questions……………………………………2
1.3 Definitions of the Terms…………………………………………………………..3
1.4 The Role of the Researcher………………………………………………….........5
1.5 Limitation of the Study…………………………………………………………...6
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………...7
2.1 Discussion on Expert Teachers…………………………………………………...7
2.1.1 The characteristics of expert teachers………………………………………7 2.1.2 The conditions of becoming an expert teacher……………………………10
2.1.3 Expert teachers’ knowledge and sources of teachers’ knowledge………...10
2.2 The Relationship between Pedagogical Knowledge and Practice………………12
2.3 Pedagogical Knowledge of English Teachers and Related Studies……………..13
2.3.1 Pedagogical knowledge of English Teachers……………………………...13
2.3.2 Studies on pedagogical knowledge of English teachers ..………………...18
2.3.3 Related studies on English teachers’ knowledge or beliefs……………….20
2.4 National Curriculum Standards for Senior High school English Textbooks……21
2.4.1 Curriculum goals………………………………………………………….21
2.4.2 Teaching materials………………………………………………………...22
2.4.3 Teaching methods…………………………………………………………23
2.5 Studies on English Teaching in Senior High School in Taiwan ………………..25
2.6 Research on Pedagogical Knowledge of Expert English Teachers or Their Classroom Practices…………………………………………………………….28
2.7 Summary………………………………………………………………………..29
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY………………………………………………….31
3.1 The Research Design and the Procedure of the Study…………………………...31
3.2 Research Context……………………………………………………………….. 34
3.3 Subjects…………………………………………………………………………..34
3.3.1 Maxine and her students…………………………………………………...35
3.3.2 Serena and her students……………………………………………………35
3.4 Research Methods and Data Collection……………………………………........36
3.4.1 Classroom observation…………………………………………………….36
3.4.2 Interview…………………………………………………………………..38
3.4.3 The researcher’s reflective journal………………………………………...39
3.4.4 Other related documents…………………………………………………..39
3.5 Data Process and Analysis………………………………………………............39
3.6 The Validity and Reliability……………………………………………………..40
CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS FROM CASE ONE STUDY AND DISCUSSION….41
4.1 Maxine’s Classroom Practices and Analysis……………………………………41
4.1.1 Teaching strategies used for students’ language acquisition and skills…...41
4.1.2 Teacher-student interaction in Maxine’s English class...…………………61
4.1.3 Motivating students………………………………………………………62
4.2 Pedagogical Knowledge Affecting Maxine’s Classroom Practices…………….63
4.2.1 Curriculum knowledge…...………………………………………………63
4.2.2 Content knowledge…………….…………………………………………65
4.2.3 Knowledge about learners…….………………………………………….66
4.2.4 Knowledge about teaching strategies………...…………………………..70
4.2.5 The sources of Maxine’s pedagogical knowledge….…………….....……70
4.3 Discussion.……...………………………………………………………………73
4.3.1 The characteristics of Maxine’s classroom practices..……………………..73
4.3.2 How Maxine’s pedagogical knowledge affected her practices..……….......75
CHAPTER 5 FINDINGS FROM CASE TWO STUDY AND DISCUSSION….77
5.1 Serena’s Classroom Practices and Analysis……………………………………..77
5.1.1 Teaching strategies used for students’ language acquisition and skills...…...77
5.1.2 Teacher-student interaction in Serena’s English class………………………97
5.1.3 Motivating students…………………………………………………………99
5.2 Pedagogical Knowledge Affecting Serena’s Classroom Practices….......………100
5.2.1 Curriculum knowledge…………………………………………………….100
5.2.2 Content knowledge………………………………………………………...101
5.2.3 Knowledge about learners………………………………………………... 102
5.2.4 Knowledge of teaching strategies.………………………………………....105
5.2.5 The sources of Serena’s pedagogical knowledge.………………………….106
5.3 Discussion……………………………………………………………………...107
5.3.1 The characteristics of Serena’s classroom practices.……………………....107
5.3.2 How Serena’s pedagogical knowledge affected her practices.…………….109
CHAPTER 6 CROSS- CASE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Cross-case Conclusion………...…….………………....……….....………….…111
6.1.1 The content of pedagogical knowledge and its sources..…………..………112
6.1.2 Their classroom practices…....………………………......................………113
6.1.3 The relationship between pedagogical knowledge and classroom practices
.…………………………………………………………….114
6.2 Recommendations..……………………………………………………………..116
6.2.1 For English teachers…….………….…………………………………..…..116
6.2.2 For teacher education institute..…………………………………………....117
6.2.3 For senior high school..………………………………………………….....117
6.2.4 For future study……………………………………………………….…..118
References………………………………………………………………………….119
Chinese……………………………………………………………………………119
English…………………………………………………………………………….121
Appendices………………………………………………………………………..126
Appendix A: Observation Form……………………………………………...126
Appendix B: Background Information about the Expert Teacher……………129
Appendix C: Points of View about in-use Textbook…………........................130
Appendix D: Interview about Students'' Difficulties and Teacher’s Solution...132
Appendix E: Open-ended Questions for Students ……………………….......133
Appendix F: English Teacher’s Motivational Strategies……………………..134
Appendix G: English Teacher’s Reflection on Teaching Styles and Characteristics…………………………………………………135
Appendix H: Maxine’s Teaching Plan of the Semester (example)…………..136
Appendix I: Serena’s Teaching Plan of the Semester (example)…………….137
Appendix J: Schedule for Classroom Observation…………………………..138
Appendix K: Schedule for Formal Interview………………………………..140
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