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研究生:陳銘傑
研究生(外文):Chen, Ming-Chieh
論文名稱:積體化主動電感之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Active Inductor Integrated Circuit
指導教授:盧春林盧春林引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lu, Chun-Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:56
中文關鍵詞:主動電感螺旋電感低雜訊放大器品質因數
外文關鍵詞:Active inductorSpiral inductorlow noise amplifierQ factor
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本論文的目的,在於研製一個高品值因數(Q-Factor)且電感值可調的主動電感積體電路(Active Inductor Integrated Circuit)。此主動電感可被應用於無線通訊系統中、前端收發機(Front-end Transceiver)的模組裡面,這類模組如低雜訊放大器(Low Noise Amplifier)、壓控振盪器(Voltage Controlled Oscillator)…等。
主動電感之所以比螺旋式電感(Spiral Inductor)更加吸引人的地方在於所佔的晶片面積較小、有較高的Q值、以及可以調整的電感值。在本論文中,我們提出了一個使用ADS模擬出來的疊接組態主動電感,此電感之工作頻率為5.7 GHz,消耗功率為9.45 mW,最大的品質因數為40、而等效電感值最大可達24 nH,同時此主動電感也可以透過偏壓電流的調整,來達到不同的等效電感值。
為了證明上述主動電感確實可以應用在RFIC內,我們另外設計了一組使用主動電感的共源極疊接組態的低雜訊放大器。此放大器工作在5.7 GHz時,具有11.2 dB的增益、-15 dBm的 以及4.1 dB的雜訊指數。
The purpose of this thesis is to implement active inductor integrated circuits with a very high quality value and a tunable inductance. The active inductor can be extensively used in the application basic modules of front-end transceiver in wireless communication system, such as LNA (Low Noise Amplifier), VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) … etc.
Because of the smaller area, the higher quality factor and the tunable inductance, active inductor exhibits charming characteristics that spiral inductor can’t exceed. The simulation results in the thesis show that a simple cascode active inductor can work at 5.7 GHz with 9.45 mW power consumption. It can deliver a maximum equivalent inductance of 24 nH with a maximum quality-factor of 40. Besides, the effective inductance and quality-factor can be tuned by controlling the bias current.
Using the above active inductor, a common-source low noise amplifier with an active inductor load is developed. The amplifier operates at 5.7 GHz with 11.1dB power gain, -15 dBm , and 4.1dB noise figure in simulation.
目 錄
第一章、緒論.........1
1.1簡介..............1
1.2論文架構簡介......2
第二章、電感 ...... 3
2.1被動電感..........3
2.2.1 螺旋電感(Spiral inductor)..... .........3
2.2.2 鎊線電感 (Bondwire inductor)...........5
2.2主動電感.................................. 6
2.2.1 主動電感簡介 ......................... .6
2.2.2 簡單疊接式(Simple cascode)主動電感..... 10
2.2.3具增益調節之疊接式主動電感.............. 11
2.2.4 主動電感RLC等效模型 ...................11
第三章、CMOS 5.7GHz 主動電感之設計 ..........14
3.1 TSMC 0.18um製程提供之螺旋電感模型量測.....14
3.2 簡單型5.7GHz疊接式主動電感之設計 ...........17
3.2.1 電路設計方法 .............................17
3.2.2 模擬結果.................................18
3.2.3 結果與討論 .............................20
第四章、低雜訊放大器(Low Noise Amplifier)......21
4.1 低雜訊放大器之效能參數 ....................21
4.1.1 MOS之雜訊模型推導 ....................22
4.1.1.1通道熱雜訊(channel thermal noise)........22
4.1.1.2分佈閘極電阻雜訊(distributed gate resistance noise)..22
4.1.1.3感應閘極電流雜訊(induced gate current noise)... 23
4.1.2雜訊指數.................................. 25
4.1.3諧波失真( Hormonic Distortion)...... .........29
4.1.4 1dB增益壓縮點( 1dB Compression Point) .........30
4.1.5三階截斷點 (third-order intercept point) .........31
4.2 LNA基本架構 ....................................33
4.2.1 電阻終端(resistive termination)組態 .........33
4.2.2共閘極(Common-gate)組態 ..................34
4.2.3 並串迴授(Shunt-series feedback)組態 .........35
4.2.4 源極電感退化(Source inductive degeneration)組態 35
4.2.5 疊接(Cascode)架構 ............................36
4.2.6 電流共用(current reuse)之低雜訊放大器 .........37
第五章、5.7GHz CMOS低雜訊放大器 ..................40
5.1 使用螺旋電感之5.7GHz CMOS LNA ..................40
5.1.1電路設計方法 ....................................40
5.2.2模擬結果 ....................................42
5.2使用主動電感之5.7GHz CMOS LNA ..................47
5.2.1電路設計方法 ....................................47
5.2.2 模擬結果 ....................................47
5.3結果與討論 ....................................52
第六章、結論 ....................................54
參考文獻 .............................................55
[1] D. K. Adams and R. Y. C. Ho, “Active Filters for UHF and Microwave Frequencies” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions, Vol. 17, PP. 662 - 670, Sep 1969.
[2] S. Hara, T. Tokumitsu, T. Tanaka and M. Aikawa, “Broad-Band Monolithic Microwave Active Inductor and Its Application to Miniaturized Wide Band Amplifier,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions, vol. 36, no. 12, pp.1920-1924, Dec 1988.
[3] S. Hara, T. Tokumitsu, T. Tanaka, “Lossless Broad-band Monolithic Microwave Active Inductors” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions, vol. 37, pp. 955-958, Dec 1989.
[4] S. Hara, T. Tokumitsu, “Monolithic Microwave Active Inductors and Their Application”, Circuits and Systems, IEEE International Symposium, vol. 3, pp. 1857-1860, June 1991.
[5] A. Thanachayanont and A. Payne, “VHF CMOS integrated Active Inductor” IEEE Electronics Letters, Vol. 32, No. 11, pp. 999-1000, May 1996.
[6] W. Zhuo, J. Pineda de Gyvez, E. Sanchez Sinencio, “Programmable Low Noise Amplifier with Acitve-inductor Load” IEEE Circuits and Systems Symposium, vol. 4, pp. 365-368, June 1998.
[7] B. Razavi, RF Microelectronics, Prentice-Hall , 1997.
[8] D. K. Shaeffer and T. H. Lee ,“A 1.5-V 1.5-GHz CMOS Low Noise Amplifier,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.32, No. 5, pp. 745-759, May 1997.
[9] T. H. Lee, The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuit, Cambridge University Press, 1998.
[10] 朱元凱,應用於802.11a WLAN 之 5GHz U-NII頻帶降頻器 CMOS RFIC,國立成功大學電機工程研究所碩士論文,民國九十一年。
[11] H. T. Friis, “Noise Figure of Radio Receivers” proc. IRE, Vol. 32, pp. 419-422, July 1944.
[12] C. Y. Cha and S. G. Lee , “A 5.2-GHz LNA in 0.35-mm CMOS Utilizing Inter-Stage Series Resonance and Optimizing the Substrate Resistance” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 38, pp.669-672, April 2003.
[13] C. Y. Cha and S. G. Lee , “A Low Power, High Gain LNA Topology” Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology Conf, pp 420 —423 ,Sep 2000.
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