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研究生:楊國彬
研究生(外文):Yang, Kuo-Pin
論文名稱:台灣國際新創事業績效影響因素之研究-國際化、廠商優勢、市場進入策略與成長策略
指導教授:于卓民于卓民引用關係朱博湧朱博湧引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:191
中文關鍵詞:國際新創事業國際化廠商優勢市場進入策略成長策略
外文關鍵詞:international new ventureinternationalizationfirm specific advantagemarket entry strategygrowth strategy
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80年代末期,全球經濟中出現一種特殊的國際企業,其在創業初期或在創業很短的時間內就開始涉入國際市場,而且國際化的程度相當高。文獻將這種類型的國際企業稱之為「國際新創事業」 (International New Venture),同時證實這種新出現的國際企業類型非但不是特例,甚至越來越為普及。由於這類廠商通常規模較小,但卻能成功的在國際市場中與設立已久的大型廠商成功競爭,顯示現象背後必然存在相當值得探討的管理意涵。台灣廠商整體而言具備了兩大特色-高度的國際化及旺盛的創業精神-此二特色正符合學界對國際新創事業的概念性定義。另外由於「國際化」與「創業」領域結合的研究議題在學界正方興未艾,在學界對國際新創事業的認識仍存有落差的情況下,針對台灣國際新創事業之現象,具體描繪這些廠商的輪廓、瞭解這些廠商國際化的績效意涵、探討這些廠商的優勢策略、市場策略及後續成長等議題,在理論及實務上都具有相當重要之意義與價值。
本研究在國際新創事業日益普及,但文獻研究卻相對缺乏的研究背景下,嘗試探討影響國際新創事業績效之因素。本研究先以國際化理論之觀點,發展國際化程度、研發投資及廣告投資對國際新創事業績效影響之相關假說;同時另以創業觀點對台灣國際新創事業進行市場進入策略之分類,發展各種策略型態的報酬與風險關係之假說,並針對廠商脫離創業期之後的策略演化進行描繪。
假說驗證上,本研究以行政院主計處1986、1991及1996年針對製造業抽查的資料庫之資料,進行各項假說驗證。統計實證結果大致支持本研究各項假說,即台灣國際新創事業:(1)國際化程度與績效間,呈先增後減的∩型曲線關係;(2) 研發密集度高於低度國際化廠商的研發密集度;(3) 研發密集度與其績效間,呈先減後增的∪型曲線關係;(4) 採取不同市場進入策略,在績效上無顯著之差異;(5) 採取不同市場進入策略在事業風險上有顯著之差異,「技術創業」廠商的風險最高,「後進模仿創業」廠商的風險最低;然而,有關台灣國際新創事業的廣告密集度與其績效間呈負向線性關係之假說,並未能獲得支持。
除以量化統計方式進行分析外,為進一步瞭解國際新創事業國際化的動態歷程及市場策略的演化軌跡,本研究另以個案研究方式進行相關問題之探討。針對四家個案廠商深度訪談的研究結果,除大致呼應量化分析中的各項假說關係外,另亦呈現部分台灣國際新創事業異於西方文獻所預測及描繪的特點,包括海外投資地理範疇的高度集中、國際化與績效關係轉折點跟海外直接投資 (FDI) 有密切關係、利基能力的建構與台灣產業環境間的配適,以及國際化因素對創業廠商績效的調節作用等。
在理論貢獻上,本研究具體完成影響台灣國際新創事業績效的各項因素之探討,補充過去國際新創事業相關文獻中較為缺乏的規範性意涵。此外,透過橫跨1986-1996年的縱斷面分析,本研究具體呈現台灣國際新創事業在特徵屬性、市場進入方式及成長策略上的演化動態,並據以檢驗這些因素的演化型態與廠商績效間之關係,提供學界一個關於國際新創事業更加完整的形態 (posture) 與勢態 (strategic move) 之描繪。最後,本論文以台灣國際新創事業做為研究樣本,也有助於相關理論外部效度之拓展。在實務意涵上,由於本研究跳脫描述性的研究架構,實證結果證實各項策略因素對國際新創事業具有重要之意涵,因此研究結果可做為台灣國際新創事業在制訂國際化策略、優勢策略、市場進入策略及後續成長策略上之參考。
第一章 導論.........................................................1
第一節 研究背景與動機.........................................................1
第二節 研究問題與目的.........................................................5
第三節 研究範圍與限制........................................................11
第四節 研究程序及論文大綱........................................................13
第二章 文獻回顧與研究假說........................................................14
第一節 國際新創事業........................................................14
第二節 國際新創事業國際化程度與績效之關係........................................................21
第三節 國際新創事業自擁優勢與績效之關係........................................................31
第四節 國際新創事業之市場進入策略......................42
第五節 國際新創事業市場進入策略之內涵、報酬與風險......52
第三章 研究方法........................................................58
第一節 資料來源與樣本........................................................58
第二節 變數之定義、衡量與統計方法........................................................63
第三節 個案研究程序........................................................70
第四章 實證結果與討論........................................................72
第一節 樣本分配與產業差異........................................................72
第二節 國際新創事業與低度國際化廠商屬性之穩定性........79
第三節 迴歸分析與假說檢定結果........................................................83
第四節 統計分析結果之討論.......................................................100
第五章 個案研究.......................................................121
第一節 個案說明.......................................................121
第二節 個案綜合分析.......................................................140
第六章 結論與建議.......................................................156
第一節 研究結論.......................................................156
第二節 理論與實務意涵.......................................................162
第三節 後續研究建議.......................................................171
參考文獻 ......................................................173
附錄一 產業分群.......................................................186
附錄二 國際化程度、研發密集度及廣告密集度與績效之曲線關係
-合併樣本.......................................................187
附錄三 十大新興工業及其重點發展項目.....................188
附錄四 國際化及研發投資與績效關係之模擬圖 (原始變數)....190
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