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研究生:李澄賢
論文名稱:大學生的情緒調節、調節焦點、樂觀與創造力之關係
指導教授:吳靜吉吳靜吉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ma,Hsen-hsing
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:226
中文關鍵詞:情緒調節調節焦點樂觀創造力結構方程模式
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本研究旨在針對現今大學生的情緒調節、調節焦點、樂觀與創造力之相關進行探討。本研究從正向心理學的角度出發,而樂觀就是以正向的結果預期來看待事情,讓我們在生活中充滿信心與活力。另外,國內學者為了打造創造力國度所推動的相關活動,都證明了創意氛圍已經在我們生活中逐漸擴散。因此我們企圖了解國內大學生樂觀的現況、性別差異與學業成績之關係,然後更進一步去探討情緒調節、調節焦點、樂觀與創造力各變項之關聯,最後建構情緒調節、調節焦點、樂觀與創造力之因果模式圖。
本研究採用問卷調查的方式,以政治大學與中央大學210位大學生為對象進行預試,分析量表信度並進行探索式因素分析後,進行正式施測。正式施測以台灣地區公私立909位大學生為受試對象,其中男生428位,女生481位。調查工具包括:樂觀傾向量表、樂觀信念量表、樂觀影響力量表、情緒調節量表、調節焦點量表、創造力自我效能量表、創新行為量表。調查所得資料再以SEM進行驗證性因素分析,並根據描述統計分析、t考驗、單因子變異數分析、皮爾遜積差相關分析、多元迴歸分析、SEM結構方程式模式等統計方法進行後續資料的處理。
研究發現如下:
一、 大學生普遍來說都還算樂觀,而且面對問題情境時傾向使用重新評估與沉著冷靜來因應;在面對目標時也比較會採取追求成功的心態;此外,大學生普遍來說都還算具有創造力。
二、 大學生在樂觀增長信念、樂觀影響力方面,女生均顯著高於男生。
三、 樂觀影響力與學業成績呈現正相關;也就是個體越相信樂觀會影響其日常生活,其學業成績會越高。
四、 情緒調節中的重新評估、壓抑、沉著冷靜與樂觀傾向呈現正相關。
五、 調節焦點中的求成取向與樂觀傾向呈現正相關,而避敗取向與樂觀傾向則是負相關。
六、 樂觀傾向與創造力中的創新行為、創造力自我效能皆呈現正相關。
七、 最佳預測迴歸模式中,樂觀傾向的勇於面對挫折、情緒調節的沉著冷靜、調節焦點的求成取向、創造力自我效能、作業指標中的創意作業喜歡與創意作業表現對創新行為具有顯著的正向預測力。
八、 因果模式中,情緒調節的重新評估、壓抑、沉著冷靜與調節焦點的求成取向對樂觀傾向為正向效果,而調節焦點的避敗取向對樂觀傾向則為負向效果;此外,樂觀傾向對創造力為正向效果。
最後,本研究根據研究結果對實務與未來研究提出建議。
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機………………………………….…………………………1
第二節 研究目的…………………………………………………………….6
第三節 研究問題…………………………………………………………….8
第四節 主要名詞詮釋……………………………………………………...10
第五節 研究限制…………………………………………………………...13
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 樂觀的概念………………………………………………………...14
第二節 樂觀的理論………………………………………………………...20
第三節 樂觀的測量………………………………………………………...30
第四節 樂觀的相關研究……………………………………….…………..41
第五節 有效學習樂觀的技術……………………………………………...49
第六節 樂觀與情緒調節、調節焦點、創造力之關係…………………...52
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究架構…………………………………………………………...59
第二節 研究假設…………………………………………………………...61
第三節 研究樣本…………………………………………………………...64
第四節 研究工具…………………………………………………………...67
第五節 研究程序…………………………………………………………...98
第六節 資料處理………………………………………………………….100
第四章 研究結果
第一節 大學生的情緒調節、調節焦點、樂觀與創造力之現況……….102
第二節 人口變項在樂觀上的差異情形………………………………….107
第三節 樂觀與學業成績之關係………………………………………….114
第四節 情緒調節、調節焦點、樂觀與創造力之關係………………….115
第五節 情緒調節、調節焦點、樂觀、創造力自我效能與作業指標對創新行為的迴歸分析………………………………………………….123
第六節 情緒調節、調節焦點、樂觀與創造力之因果路徑分析……….127
第五章 討論、結論與建議
第一節 討論……………………………………………………………….137
第二節 結論……………………………………………………………….148
第三節 建議……………………………………………………………….153
參考書目
中文部份……………………………………………………………..………..158
西文部分………………………………………………………………………159
附錄
附錄一:樂觀量表的建立……………………………………………..……..176
附錄二:人口變項在情緒調節、調節焦點、創造力上的差異情形……..…190
附錄三:各變項之相關係數表………………………………………………205
附錄四:結構方程模式之正式模式SIMPLIS語法檔…………………….…206
附錄五:正式模式之適合度指標……………………….……………….…..208
附錄六:樂觀概念的開放問卷………………………………………………209
附錄七:預試問卷……………………………………………..………….….211
附錄八:正式問卷……………………………………………..…………..…217
附錄九:徵求Dr. Gross「情緒調節量表」使用同意權……..………….…223
附錄十:徵求Dr. Tierney「創造力自我效能量表」使用同意權…………225
表 目 錄
表1樂觀者與悲觀者的行為………………………………………….……………56
表2北區大學生樣本分布情形……………………………………….……………64
表3中區大學生樣本分布情形……………………………………….……………65
表4南區與東區大學生樣本分布情形……………………………….……………65
表5本研究大學生就讀學院之分布情形…………………………….……………66
表6本研究大學生就讀年級之分布情形…………………………….……………66
表7本研究大學生就讀學校性質之分布情形……………………….……………66
表8樂觀傾向之因素分析…………………………………………….……………68
表9樂觀傾向之信度分析…………………………………………….……………69
表10樂觀傾向的驗證性因素分析與信度…………..……………….……………71
表11樂觀信念之因素分析…………………………………………….…………..73
表12樂觀信念之信度分析…………………………………………….…………..74
表13樂觀信念的驗證性因素分析與信度…………………………….…………..75
表14樂觀的影響之因素分析……………………………..………….……………77
表15樂觀的影響之信度分析………………………………………….…………..78
表16樂觀影響力的驗證性因素分析與信度………………………….…………..79
表17情緒調節之因素分析…………………………………………….…………..81
表18情緒調節之信度分析…………………………………………….…………..82
表19情緒調節的驗證性因素分析與信度…………………………….…………..83
表20調節焦點之因素分析…………………………………………….…………..86
表21調節焦點之信度分析………………………………………….……………..87
表22調節焦點的驗證性因素分析與信度………………………….……………..88
表23創新行為之因素分析……………………………………………………...…91
表24創新行為之信度分析……………………………………………………...…91
表25創新行為的驗證性因素分析與信度……………………………………...…92
表26創造力自我效能之因素分析………………………………….……………..94
表27創造力自我效能之信度分析………………………………….……………..95
表28創造力自我效能的驗證性因素分析與信度………………….……………..95
表29本研究研究工具之整理摘要…………………………………….…………..96
表30大學生樂觀之現況分析摘要表………………………………….…………103
表31大學生情緒調節之現況分析摘要表………………………….……………104
表32大學生調節焦點之現況分析摘要表………………………….……………105
表33大學生創造力之現況分析摘要表……...…………………….……….……106
表34男女大學生在樂觀變項上的t檢定………………………….…………….107
表35樂觀變項在年級上的變異數同質檢定………………….…………………108
表36年級在樂觀變項上的單因子變異數分析……………….…………………109
表37樂觀變項在樣本地區上的變異數同質檢定…………….…………………110
表38樣本地區在樂觀變項上的單因子變異數分析………….…………………110
表39樂觀變項在就讀學院上的變異數同質檢定…………….…………………111
表40就讀學院在樂觀變項上的單因子變異數分析…………….………………112
表41學校性質在樂觀變項上的t檢定…………….…………………………….112
表42樂觀變項與學業成績之相關…………….…………………………………114
表43情緒調節、調節焦點與樂觀之相關…………….…………………………115
表44情緒調節、調節焦點對樂觀傾向的變異數分析摘要表………………….117
表45情緒調節、調節焦點對樂觀傾向的迴歸分析係數摘要表……………….118
表46樂觀與創造力之相關…………….…………………………………………119
表47樂觀變項對創新行為的變異數分析摘要表……………………………….120
表48樂觀變項對創新行為的迴歸分析係數摘要表…………………………….120
表49樂觀變項對創造力自我效能的變異數分析摘要表……………………….121
表50樂觀變項對創造力自我效能的迴歸分析係數…………………………….121
表51情緒調節、調節焦點、樂觀傾向、創造力自我效能、作業指標對創新行為的變異數分析摘要表……………………………………………….….….123
表52情緒調節、調節焦點、樂觀傾向、創造力自我效能、創意作業指標對創新行為的迴歸分析係數摘要表…………………………………………..….124
表53勇於面對挫折、沉著冷靜、求成取向、創造力自我效能、創意作業指標對創新行為的變異數分析摘要表………………………………………..….125
表54勇於面對挫折、沉著冷靜、求成取向、創造力自我效能、創意作業指標對創新行為的迴歸分析係數摘要表……………………………………..….126
表55初始模式適合度指標.……………………………………………….….…..130
表56正式模式之標準化參數估計及顯著性考驗…….………………….….…..132
表57正式模式適合度指標.……………………………………………….….…..134
表58正式模式之變項個別信度指標、潛在變項的成分信度、平均變異抽取.135
圖 目 錄
圖1本研究架構圖……………………………………………………………..…...60
圖2初始模式的因果路徑圖………………………………………………...……128
圖3初始模式參數估計的因果路徑圖………………………………………...…129
圖4正式模式的因果路徑圖……………………………………………………...131
中文部分:
丁明潔 (民92)。國中生樂觀/悲觀傾向、課業壓力評估、課業壓力因應方式與學校生活適應之相關研究。國立政治大學教育學系教育心理與輔導組碩士論文。未出版。
何家齊 (民87)。大學生的樂觀傾向、壓力因應方式與生活適應的相關研究。國立彰化師範大學輔導學系碩士論文。未出版。
吳靜吉 (民80)。樂觀量表簡介。未出版。
吳靜吉、李澄賢 (民92)。樂觀量表的建立。未出版。
吳靜吉、郭俊賢、王文中、劉鶴龍、陳淑惠和李慧賢 (民85)。創新行為量表之編制與修訂。未出版。
邱皓政 (民92)。結構方程模式─LISREL的理論、技術與應用。台北:雙葉。
洪蘭譯 (民86)。學習樂觀,樂觀學習。台北:遠流。
洪蘭譯 (民92)。真實的快樂。台北:遠流。
胡悅倫、吳柏林 (民91)。模糊統計在分析樂觀量表之應用。教育心理研究,25期,457-484頁。
張春興 (民85)。教育心理學。台北:東華。
程炳林 (民93)。結構方程模式。陳正昌、程炳林、陳新豐、劉子鍵合著:多變量分析方法─統計軟體應用 (295-421頁)。台北:五南。
羅素 (民74)。西方哲學史(下)。台北:五南。
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