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研究生:鄭齊兒
研究生(外文):Cheng,Chi-erh
論文名稱:從聲學語音學角度分析在台灣的國語中聲調之連併
論文名稱(外文):An Acoustic Phonetic Analysis of Tone Contraction in Taiwan Mandarin
指導教授:謝國平謝國平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tse,Kwock-ping
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:語言研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:聲學語音學連併音節聲調中文
外文關鍵詞:acoustic phoneticscontracted syllabletoneMadnarin
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在語言學文獻上,對於音段在連併音節上的研究已非常眾多且詳細。而目前也有不少學者開始處理音節連併的超音段(聲調)部分,但是大多數研究是從音韻學的觀點。本文試圖從聲學語音學的角度,檢驗連併音節的產生與說話者的速度、說話者對內容熟悉度之間的關係;及分析連併音節的基頻與其音節長度。實驗統計結果證實說話者的速度與內容熟悉度的確與連併音節成正相關。三名以台灣地區的國語為母語的受試者,被要求分別錄製五段短文,各短文裡分別有數十個可能產生雙音節連併的詞組。在連併音節的基頻分析結果顯示,呈現出些微降調及升調兩種調型。我們並且發現,連併前的聲調起始值(onset)為產生連併聲調的最佳基本單位,我們也歸納出兩條規則來加以解釋。另外,在連併音節的長度分析結果顯示,連併音節所需的時間單位比起一般音節更短。綜合以上結果,我們暸解除了可經由規則推論出連併音節的調型之外,在語音的面向上,這些連併聲調皆呈現出較窄的調域、居中的調值和較短時間等的特徵。因此從本研究的結果顯示,我們較傾向支持連併音節是類似於輕重音表現的說法,而不再局限於本身的調值的衍算與否。另外,對於在我們分析過程所發現伴隨著連併音節的鼻音現象,證明了一般認為在快速語流中,共同發音所產生的自然現象,也給予了認為鼻音是另屬一個自主音段的說法更進一步的實證支持。
Segment deletion or merger in contracted syllables has been well understood in the literature. Several researchers have also been investigating the tones in contracted syllables. However, most of their researches are based on phonology. The present study analyzes the tones in disyllabic contraction by examining its relationship with speech rate and familiarity. It also analyzes the fundamental frequency (F0) and duration of the contracted tones. An experiment was conducted to explore the idea that familiarity with the test materials and the rate of speech correlate positively with the occurrences of tone contraction. Three native speakers of Mandarin Chinese (in Taiwan region) recorded five paragraphs, each of which contains dozens of possible disyllabic contractions. Analysis of F0 reveals that there are basically two types of tonal shapes of contracted syllables─slightly falling and rising; and the onsets of the original syllable tonal units are the most adequate portions of forming a contracted tone. Two governing rules were generalized from various the findings of the experiments. Results of duration indicate less time is taken by a contracted syllable than an uncontracted one. The findings of this study provide support for the view that the contours of the contracted tones are predicted by rules. They also show that much of the variability of F0 contours in contracted syllables exhibits a fixed tonal pattern (narrower pith range, more middle tonal height, and shorter length) and that contracted tones has an accentual character in essence. In addition, the nasality accompanying contracted syllables in this study provides testimony to the natural co-occurrence of nasal and oral features in fast speech and at the same time also give support to the hypothesis that nasality acts on a separate autosegmental tier.
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Theoretical Formulation 1
1.2 Motivation and Purpose 2
1.3 Organization of Thesis 4
2. Literature Review 5
2.1 Phonological Studies of Tone Contraction 5
2.1.1 Yip (1988): Edge-In Association 5
2.1.2 Chung (1996, 1997): The Edge-In Model 6
2.1.3 Hsu (2000): The Sonority Model 7
2.1.4 Chang (1998): The Trochee View 9
2.1.5 Y. Hsiao (2002): The Correspondence Approach 10
2.2 Phonetic Studies of Tone Contraction 11
2.2.1 C. Tseng (1990) 11
2.2.2 Xu and Wang (2001) 12
2.2.3 S. Tseng (2003) 14
2.3 Lexical Tones in Mandarin 15
2.4 Nasality 17
2.4.1 The Measurement of Nasality 17
2.4.2 Syllable Structures in Mandarin 18
2.5 Hypotheses and Predictions 19
3. Methodology 20
3.1 Subjects 20
3.2 Materials 21
3.3 Recording Procedure 24
3.4 Analysis and Measurement Procedure 25
3.4.1 Criteria for Selecting Contracted Syllables 25
3.5 Statistical Analysis 29
4. Results 30
4.1 Speaker’s Tendencies in Tone Contraction 30
4.1.1 Familiarity and Speed 30
4.1.2 Tonal Combinations and Positions 32
4.2 Acoustic Results of Tones in Contracted Syllables 34
4.2.1 Fundamental Frequency 34
4.2.2 Duration 54
4.2.3 Nasality 56
5. Discussion 61
5.1 Patterns of Tone Contraction 61
5.1.1 Tone Shapes/Values: Two Governing Rules 62
5.1.2 Pitch Range 65
5.1.3 Duration 66
5.1.4 Nasality 70
5.2 Tone in Contracted Syllables: Toward a Syntagmatic Phenomenon 71
6. Conclusion 74
6.1 Summary 74
6.2 Contribution of this Study 75
6.3 Limitations and Further Studies 75
6.4 Concluding Remarks 76
Bibliography 77
Appendixes 87
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