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研究生:王永琦
研究生(外文):Yung-Chi Wang
論文名稱:土壤先前含水量對沖蝕影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Antecedent Soil Moisture on the Effect of Erosion
指導教授:林俐玲林俐玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Ling Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:水土保持學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:水土保持學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:先前土壤含水量逕流體積沖蝕量逕流係數
外文關鍵詞:Antecedent soil moistureRunoff volumeErosionRunoff coefficient
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本研究以台灣中部之黃壤和紅壤各以過篩和未過篩進行不同土壤先前含水量對沖蝕影響之比較。先以乾土進行試驗然後再進行兩組不同含水量之人工降雨沖蝕試驗,進而取得三種不同含水量之實驗結果並且探討之。本研究主要之結果如下:
(1)土壤先前含水量越高,產生逕流的時間越早,且會增加逕流體積,同 時沖蝕量亦隨著先前含水量的提高而顯著的提高。
(2)由降雨延時和逕流體積可得知地表飽和後所收集到之逕流體積會趨於一定值。且以間隔10分鐘個別逕流體積轉換為逕流係數和降雨延時做回歸分析,則其回歸方程式以k = k0 + k1t-a(a、k0、k1均為常數,t為降雨延時)表示,並可由方程式求得各種處理之穩定逕流係數和產生地表逕流時間。
Yellow and red soil samples collected from the central Taiwan were used to study the different antecedent soil moisture on the effect of erosion under simulated rainfall conditions. The results of the experiments are summarized as the following:
(1)The occurrence of runoff was earlier with the increase of antecedent soil moisture, the runoff volume and erosion increased with the increase of antecedent soil moisture.
(2)The runoff volume will reach a stable value after the surface is saturated. The nonlinear regression equation between runoff coefficient (k) and precipitation druation time (t) is k = k0 + k1t-a. The equation parameters, a,k0 and k1,were determined for different antecedent soil moisture by the experimental results.
中文摘要..................................................Ⅰ
英文摘要..................................................Ⅱ
目錄......................................................Ⅲ
表目錄....................................................Ⅵ
圖目錄....................................................Ⅶ
照片目錄..................................................Ⅶ
第一章 前言...............................................1
第二章 前人研究...........................................2
第一節 土壤、水分與沖蝕...................................2
第二節 土壤水分含量測定...................................6
(一)重量法...............................................6
(二)電阻法...............................................6
(三)中子法...............................................6
(四)γ-ray吸收............................................7
(五)TDR終端反射測定儀………………………………………………7
第三節 人工模擬降雨機之簡介與相關研究.....................8
(一)人工模擬降雨機之簡介.................................8
(1)點滴式人工模擬降雨器................................8
(2)加壓噴嘴式人工模擬降雨器............................9
(二)人工模擬降雨機之相關研究.............................9
第三章 研究材料與方法....................................12
第一節 研究材料..........................................12
(一)試驗土壤來源地區簡介................................12
(二)試驗土樣之處理......................................14
第二節 人工模擬降雨器....................................16
(一)降雨器之構造簡介....................................16
(二)降雨強度之率定......................................18
第三節 實驗方法與步驟...............................19
(一)研究流程............................................19
(二)土壤基本理化性質分析................................21
(三)人工模擬降雨試驗....................................29
(四)統計分析方法........................................31
第四章 結果與討論........................................32
第一節 土壤基本理化性質分析..............................32
第二節 人工模擬降雨器率定結果............................35
第三節 人工模擬降雨沖蝕之結果............................37
第五章 結論與建議........................................53
參考文獻..................................................54
附錄A. 土壤理化性質......................................60
附錄B. 人工模擬降雨沖蝕試驗...............................65
附錄C. 人工模擬降雨沖蝕過程照片..........................69
附錄D. 逕流係數與降雨延時之回歸分析......................71
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