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研究生:郭銘淵
研究生(外文):Ming-Yun Kuo
論文名稱:添加多醣對酸乳沈澱影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):Effect of the addition of polysaccharides on the precipitation of acid milk
指導教授:顏國欽顏國欽引用關係
指導教授(外文):Gow-Chin Yen, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:酸乳沈澱羧甲基纖維素果膠水溶性大豆多醣反應曲面法感官品評
外文關鍵詞:acid milkprecipitationcarboxymethyl cellulosepectinsoluble soy polysaccharideresponse surface methodology (RSM)sensory evaluation
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市售酸乳主要可分為發酵型與調配型兩大類,其營養價值廣受消費者的喜愛與肯定,但因其沉澱問題會影響消費者的選購意願,因此,如何降低酸乳沉澱實為當前乳品業者極待解決之問題。
本研究乃針對酸乳業者最常使用之羧甲基纖維素(CMC)、果膠(pectin)、水溶性大豆多醣(S-DN)等三種酸乳安定劑先進行篩選試驗,分別於不同pH值(3.0~5.0)、添加比例(0.3~0.5 ﹪)及不同溫度條件下測試其黏度及安定性(沉澱量)。篩選試驗結果顯示,無論在7℃或21℃的測試溫度下,均以添加S-DN來提升酸乳之黏度及安定性的效果最佳,且最適pH值為 4.0;其次是CMC,而pectin之添加效果則較不顯著。此外,隨機取樣三種市售酸乳產品並針對其黏度及安定性(沉澱量)進行比較,其結果均顯著低於上述三種多醣之添加效果。
依據篩選試驗結果,進而模擬工業化生產以反應曲面法(RSM)探討各組之最適加工條件,試驗為二變數,三階層之設計,採用pectin 0.5 ﹪、CMC 0.4 ﹪及S-DN 0.3 ﹪之添加量,並分別加減50 ﹪作為採用階層之上下限。由所得迴歸分析數據顯示結果與篩選試驗具有相同趨勢。各組安定劑添加量之最適條件分別為pectin 1.0 ﹪、CMC 0.8 ﹪及S-DN 0.3 ﹪。經感官品評試驗結果,以S-DN添加組之整體接受度最為理想。
綜合以上結果得知,添加多醣可有效改善酸乳之沉澱現象,並提高其安定度,其中以在pH 3~4 的調酸條件下,添加0.3﹪S-DN的改善效果最為顯著,本研究成果將有助於酸乳業者改善產品品質之參考。
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of polysaccharides added on the improvement of the precipitation phenomenon in yogurt (Acid milk). Three kinds of acid milk stabilizers, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), pectin and soy polysaccharide (S-DN) were evaluated in the preliminary study. Different pH values (3.0 ~ 5.0), addition percentage (0.3 ~ 0.5 %) and temperature condition (7 and 21℃) were modified to monitor the amount of precipitate in acid milk by analyzing the viscosity and stability. Data showed that the addition of S-DN had the best performance in improving the viscosity and stability in pH 4.0 both at 7 and 21℃, followed by CMC and pectin. Three kinds of commercial products were also sampled randomly to analyze the viscosity and stability. None of the product showed the better performance than our designed product. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted for optimizing of the mass production process. Two independent variables (concentration of stabilizer and amount of precipitate) in three different levels were set up for the industrial scale production. Results showed that the performance of the mass production process was conformed to that in the preliminary test. The optimal condition for stabilizer addition was pectin, CMC and S-DN in 0.5, 0.4 and 0.3% respectively. Results from sensory evaluation showed that the S-DN addition obtained the best overall acceptance. It is concluded that the precipitation of acid milk can be improved by adding polysaccharide stabilizers, especially 0.3 % of S-DN at pH 3 ~ 4.
目 錄
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅲ
前言 1
文獻整理 1
一、酸乳的定義 4
二、酸乳的製造 5
三、影響酸乳品質的因素 8
(一)牛乳中的蛋白質含量及總固形物含量 8
(二)脂肪含量 8
(三)安定劑 8
(四)均質處理 9
(五)加熱條件 9
四、酸乳之物理及化學性質判定 11
(一)黏度 11
(二)保水性 12
(三)pH值 12
五、多醣類之功能性 12
(一)果膠(pectin) 14
(二)羧甲基纖維素(Carboxymethyl cellulose ,CMC) 17
(三)水溶性大豆多醣(Soluble Soy Polysaccharide,S-DN) 20
六、蛋白質與多醣類之交互作用 24
七、反應曲面法(Response surface methodology;RSM)簡介 26
研究目的 28
本論文之研究架構 29
材料與方法 30
結果與討論 40
一、 市售酸乳產品測試結果 40
二、 酸乳添加多醣之安定效果初步篩選試驗 42
(一)果膠對酸乳之安定效果 42
(二) CMC對酸乳之安定效果 48
(三)水溶性大豆多醣對酸乳之安定效果 55
三、以反應曲面法探討工業生產中酸乳安定劑最適添加條件 61
(一)酸乳添加果膠之最適條件探討 61
(二) 酸乳添加CMC之最適條件探討 70
(三) 酸乳添加大豆多醣體之最適條件探討 79
(四)模式適當性確認 88
1.三種安定劑對酸乳安定效果之評估 88
2.最適添加條件產品感官品評試驗 91
結論 93
參考文獻 94
表 次
表一、水溶性大豆多醣(Soluble Soy Polysaccharide)成分分析 21
表二、酸乳離心時間與離心沉澱率的關係 34
表三、反應曲面分析二因子、三階層之實驗設計(1) 37
表四、反應曲面分析二因子、三階層之實驗設計(2) 38
表五、市售酸乳產品黏度及沈澱量比較 41
表六、添加pectin對酸乳黏度之影響 44
表七、酸乳pH 3.0條件下添加pectin之沉澱量結果 45
表八、酸乳pH 4.0條件下添加pectin之沉澱量結果 46
表九、酸乳pH 5.0條件下添加pectin之沉澱量結果 47
表十、不同耐酸CMC濃度之pH值與黏度關係 50
表十一、添加CMC對酸乳黏度之影響 51
表十二、酸乳pH 3.0條件下添加CMC之沉澱量結果 52
表十三、酸乳pH 4.0條件下添加CMC之沉澱量結果 53
表十四、酸乳pH 5.0條件下添加CMC之沉澱量結果 54
表十五、添加S-DN對酸乳黏度之影響 56
表十六、酸乳pH 3.0條件下添加S-DN之沉澱量結果 57
表十七、酸乳pH 4.0條件下添加S-DN之沉澱量結果 58
表十八、酸乳pH 5.0條件下添加S-DN之沉澱量結果 59
表十九、添加pectin對酸乳沈澱量及黏度之影響 63
表二十、酸乳添加pectin沈澱量及黏度變化之迴歸係數 64
表二十一、酸乳添加pectin之反應性狀變方分析 65
表二十二、添加CMC對酸乳沈澱量及黏度之影響 72
表二十三、酸乳添加CMC沈澱量及黏度變化之迴歸係數 73
表二十四、酸乳添加CMC之反應性狀變方分析 74
表二十五、添加S-DN對酸乳沈澱量及黏度之影響 81
表二十六、酸乳添加S-DN沈澱量及黏度變化之迴歸係數 82
表二十七、酸乳添加S-DN之反應性狀變方分析 83
表二十八、酸乳添加多醣最適條件之評估 90
表二十九、接受性試驗結果 92
圖 次
圖一、發酵乳之製造流程 7
圖二、果膠分子構造 16
圖三、羧甲基纖維素化學結構式 18
圖四、羧甲基纖維素鈉鹽之製備 19
圖五、水溶性大豆多醣之分子量分佈 22
圖六、水溶性大豆多醣的推測構造 23
圖七、酸乳之製備流程 32
圖八、酸乳離心時間與離心沉澱率之關係圖 35
圖九、添加Pectin對酸乳沈澱量改善效果之等效應曲線圖 66
圖十、添加Pectin對酸乳沈澱量改善效果之反應曲面圖 67
圖十一、添加Pectin對酸乳黏度效果之等效應曲線圖 68
圖十二、添加Pectin對酸乳黏度效果之反應曲面圖 69
圖十三、添加CMC對酸乳沈澱量改善效果之等效應曲線圖 75
圖十四、添加CMC對酸乳沈澱量改善效果之反應曲面圖 76
圖十五、添加CMC對酸乳黏度效果之等效應曲線圖 77
圖十六、添加CMC對酸乳黏度效果之反應曲面圖 78
圖十七、添加S-DN對酸乳沈澱量改善效果之等效應曲線圖 84
圖十八、添加S-DN對酸乳沈澱量改善效果之反應曲面圖 85
圖十九、添加S-DN對酸乳黏度效果之等效應曲線圖 86
圖二十、添加S-DN對酸乳黏度效果之反應曲面圖 87
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