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研究生:周秀堅
研究生(外文):Hsiu-Chien Chou
論文名稱:不同水分比例濕磨米漿預糊化對米漿型製品品質的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of pre-gelatinization of diffferent moisture ratio wet milling rice paste on the quality of rice cake
指導教授:盧 訓江伯源江伯源引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shin LuPo-Yuan Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:不同水分比例濕磨米漿預糊化
外文關鍵詞:Different moisture ratioWet milling rice pastePre-gelatinization
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中文摘要
米漿型製品(鹹粿、蘿蔔粿、碗粿)為國人喜愛的中式米食製品,主要以秈米為原料,利用其糊化、凝膠特性,製成外觀佳、質地好的米食製品。本實驗採用臺農秈19號米為原料,利用不同比例水分(米:水=1:2、1:3、1:4)溼磨米漿特性理化性質及預糊化處理對製品品質之影響,分析項目有;米穀粉組成分、連續糊化黏度(RVA)、粒徑分佈、掃瞄式電子顯微鏡(SEM)觀察、光學偏極光觀察、色澤、水分含量、成品質地、凹陷度及感官品評等項目,實驗結果如下;原料米粒吸水量在浸泡40分鐘時為0.17g水/g米,可達吸水平衡。加水量愈多,所需研磨時間越長,經離心脫水後之粉糰其含水量均非常接近約在43%~44%左右,經熱風乾燥與冷凍之粉糰,其糊化黏度有差異,以一般濕磨糊化黏度較高而粒徑大小分佈之差異並不明顯,經掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察,乾燥後再研磨的澱粉顆粒完整性較少;在物性及質地分析中,米漿預糊化過程,水分含量的多寡會影響製品的凹陷度、成品之彈性及咀嚼感,其中米與水分比例為1:2時較硬,但比例1:4較軟,掃瞄式電子顯微鏡所照相片微細結構自1:2至1:4的組織、孔洞分佈依序由緻密到鬆散。官能品評結果,原料米與水的比例以1:3,廣受品評員接受。實驗結果,以米浸40分鐘後,濕磨米漿(米:水=1:3),預糊化時間180秒再進行炊蒸,可得到較佳之品質,另一般濕磨米漿較熱風乾燥者製成的米漿型製品質地較好。

Abstract
Rice cake , such as salt rice cake、radish rice cake、rice cup cake , are popular Chinese-style rice processed food. Mainly the raw material is Indica rice utilizing gelatinizing characteristic of rice pastes , and then we can get rice production with good-looking appearance and fine texture. In the experiment , the nation TNuS19 rice was adopted as the raw material. The researcher focused on effect of the pre-gelatinization of wet milling rice paste under the conditon of different ratio of rice and water as 1:2,1:3, and 1:4. The analyzed items included chemical composition of rice , rapid viscosity analyze(RVA), rice paste particle size , scanning electron micrographs(SEM), normal and polarized light photomicrographs , colorness , moisture content , texture , hollowness , sensory evaluation. The experimental results showed below:the rice kernel adopted as the raw material absorbed equivalently(0.17g water/ g rice) after being steeped for 40 minutes. After dried by the centrifuge dehumidifier , the rice flours were tested moisture and showed the moisture 43%~44% or so . The Rapid Visco Analyze(RVA) showed dry milled rice flours have lower viscosity than frozen rice paste ; the morphological structure photographed by Scanning electron microscopy of rice kernel granule with dry milled has lower completeness. The physical properties and texture experiments , rice paste pre-gelatinization process、moisture content affect the hollowness、springiness and chewiness of the products. The rice and water ratio 1:2 was more harder , but 1:4 was softer. Microstructures of 1:2,1:3,1:4 we observed photographed by SEM are from compactness to sponginess. The result of sensory evaluation showed that rice and water ratio 1:3 is more popular among the evaluators. In conclusion , after rice steeping for 40 minutes , wet-milled rice paste with 1:3 , set gelatization time 180 seconds , finally in the process of steaming , following procedure above we can get better products. In addition , rice cake produced from wet-milled rice paste have better quality in texture than that produced from air-hot dry rice flours.

目 錄
中文摘要--------------------------------------------------------------------------1
英文摘要--------------------------------------------------------------------------3
前 言-----------------------------------------------------------------------------5
文獻整理--------------------------------------------------------------------------6
一、 臺灣稻米的分類、構造及化學組成---------------------------------6
(一)、依中國國家標準分類------------------------------------------------6
(二)、稻米的構造------------------------------------------------------------7
(三)、稻米的化學組成------------------------------------------------------9
二、澱粉-------------------------------------------------------------------------10
(一)、澱粉顆粒--------------------------------------------------------------10
(二)、澱粉的組成-----------------------------------------------------------12
(三)、澱粉的糊化-----------------------------------------------------------17
(四)、澱粉的回凝-----------------------------------------------------------21
三、米漿糊液-------------------------------------------------------------------24
四、米漿型製品----------------------------------------------------------------25
五、米漿型製品的物性與官能品評----------------------------------------26
材料與方法----------------------------------------------------------------------28
一、 材料---------------------------------------------------------------------28
二、 實驗方法--------------------------------------------------------------29
(一)、米穀粉及米漿製備-------------------------------------------------29
(二)、米漿預糊化製作米漿型製品-------------------------------------30
三、 米漿型製品製造過程-----------------------------------------------31
四、 理化質地特性分析--------------------------------------------------31
(一)、基本成份分析-------------------------------------------------------31
(1)、水分------------------------------------------------------------------31
(2)、灰分------------------------------------------------------------------31
(3)、粗脂肪---------------------------------------------------------------32
(4)、粗蛋白---------------------------------------------------------------32
(5)、總澱粉---------------------------------------------------------------32
(6)、直鏈澱粉------------------------------------------------------------33
(二)、米粒吸水量測定----------------------------------------------------33
(三)、米穀粉粒徑大小分佈測定----------------------------------------34
(四)、米穀粉掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察----------------------------------34
(五)、米漿預糊化----------------------------------------------------------35
1、 米漿預糊化處理過程中心溫度測定------------------------35
2、 米漿預糊化處理後水分含量測定---------------------------35
3、 光學及偏光顯微鏡觀察---------------------------------------35
4、 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察--------------------------------------36
5、 連續糊化黏度測定--------------------------------------------36
(六)、米漿型製品的炊蒸------------------------------------------------37
(七)、米漿型製品品質分析---------------------------------------------37
1、 縱切面面積與表面凹陷度測定--------------------------------37
2、 水分含量測定-----------------------------------------------------38
3、 色澤測定-----------------------------------------------------------38
4、 質地分析-----------------------------------------------------------39
5、 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察-----------------------------------------39
6、 感官品評-----------------------------------------------------------40
五、統計分析-----------------------------------------------------------------40
結果與討論--------------------------------------------------------------------41
一、 原料米的組成分分析---------------------------------------------41
二、 米粒吸水量測定---------------------------------------------------41
三、 濕磨米漿離心脫水後水分含量測定---------------------------43
四、 連續糊化黏度測定------------------------------------------------43
五、 米穀粉粒徑大小測定---------------------------------------------48
六、 米漿預糊化---------------------------------------------------------53
1. 預糊化處理後中心溫度測定-------------------------------------53
2. 預糊化處理後水分含量測定-------------------------------------55
3. 光學及偏光顯微鏡觀察-------------------------------------------55
4. 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察-------------------------------------------64
5. 未經預糊化米漿炊蒸對製品的影響----------------------------69
七、米漿型製品的炊蒸--------------------------------------------------71
1. 經預糊化後米漿型製品炊蒸過程溫度的測定----------------71
2. 未經預糊化炊蒸過程溫度的測定-------------------------------75
八、米漿型製品品質分析-----------------------------------------------79
1. 縱切面面積與表面凹陷度測定----------------------------------79
2. 水分含量測定-------------------------------------------------------79
3. 色澤測定-------------------------------------------------------------84
4. 質地分析-------------------------------------------------------------86
5. 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察-------------------------------------------90
6. 感官品評-------------------------------------------------------------92
結論-----------------------------------------------------------------------------95
參考文獻-----------------------------------------------------------------------96

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