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研究生:林湘芸
論文名稱:蔭油之洗麴效果與製法改善之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies of the washing effect of koji on improving the manufacture of Inyu
指導教授:柯文慶柯文慶引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:黑豆蔭油洗麴梯度加鹽蛋白酶
外文關鍵詞:flavourzyme
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傳統蔭油製造的特點在於洗麴及保溫兩個步驟,本研究設計三種洗麴設備,探討洗麴效果及其必要性。結果顯示:經洗豆麴下缸之生蔭油品質較佳,未洗豆麴下缸釀造三個月間所得之生蔭油,其 pH 值、胺基態氮(AN)和總氮(TN)分別為 5.1~5.4、0.64~0.67 g/100ml 及 1.7~2.28 g/100ml,其值皆低於經洗麴之豆麴所製之生蔭油(pH:5.2~5.6、AN:0.62~0.98 g/100ml及TN:1.51~2.69 g/100ml)。洗麴後保溫,顯著提高豆麴中蛋白酶之活性,有助於洗麴後所製生蔭油 pH 之降低及胺基態氮含量之增加。三種洗麴方式中,混合攪拌式洗麴之豆粒之洗淨效果最佳;水流循環式之機械破壞力最小,豆粒最完整;高壓噴水式則豆粒之完整性不佳,但洗淨時間短,操作方便且可獲得較高之生蔭油品質。唯三種方式均可洗淨黑豆麴表面附著之孢子,且洗麴後所製出生蔭油之胺基態氮含量、顏色及風味均優於未經洗麴者,顯示去除孢子在蔭油製程中是有效且必要的。
蔭油在釀造過程中,蛋白質的分解及熟成與其品質密不可分。此部分研究接續第一部分之結果,以高壓噴水式浸洗豆麴後下缸釀造,探討梯度加鹽及添加蛋白酶促進熟成的效應。a 方式:單次加鹽(以20% 鹽濃度進行下缸)、b 方式:梯度加鹽(以 5% 之鹽水下缸,第 3 日補鹽至10%,第 15 日補鹽至15%,第 30 日補鹽至20%)及 c 方式:添加蛋白酶(方法同梯度加鹽並於下缸時添加蛋白酶 flavourzyme,酵素濃度為100、300及500倍的稀釋液,酵素活性為66.56、22.01及11.37 Unit/ml)。結果顯示,所有釀造方式之生蔭油pH值均介於5.1 ~ 5.4 之間,而熟成期間酸度先上升再趨於穩定。每批產品之蛋白酶活性不同,且隨著放置時間之延長活性會跟著降低;梯度加鹽及添加蛋白酶之釀造方式顯現較高的蛋白酶活性,且總氮量於釀造第14天時就明顯高於傳統單次加鹽,特別是添加稀釋100倍 flavourzyme 的熟成方式,其總氮量達2.6 g/100 ml。各釀造方式之胺基態氮生成,均隨著熟成時間延長而漸增,但以單次加鹽方式的生成量最低,而添加蛋白酶 c-100 之生成量最高。此外,總游離胺基酸含量亦皆隨著熟成時間之增加而逐漸的上升,但仍以單次加鹽的量為最低,c-100樣品為最高。上述結果顯示,梯度加鹽及添加蛋白酶有促進蔭油熟成及提高品質之效果。
Properties of Inyu made from washed and warm koji were determined. The efficiency of washing facilities designed was also compared to obtain a good method for practical use. The results obtained were as follows. Washing koji made Inyu which quality was more better. During three months pH value, amino nitrogen(AN), and total nitrogen(TN) for the raw Inyu made from koji without washing ranged at 5.1~5.4, 0.64~0.67 g/100 ml, and 1.7~2.28 g/100 ml, respectively, which were lower than that of washed(pH:5.2~5.6、AN:0.62~0.98 g/100ml and TN:1.51~2.69 g/100ml). Washing and incubation of koji resulted in the increase of protease activity. This maybe related to low acidity and high content in amino nitrogen of raw Inyu made from washed koji. With three designed washing facilities, mix-stirring method was effective on water absorbance and bean swelling, water-circulation method was excellent for maintaining the bean figured, and high pressure water-spraying method was easily operated and had high quality of raw Inyu . All the three methods could adequately remove spores adhered on bean surface. Besides amino nitrogen content, color and flavor of the Inyu made from washed koji were better than that of unwashed. The results indicate that washing to remove spores was effective and necessary for making Inyu.
Inyu decomposition of protein and aging is important on quality of inyu. Three aging types of inyu were carried out to investigate the enhanced effects from gradient salt-adding and protease. Type a:addition of salt at a time by 20% NaCl solution;Type b:gradient addition of salt by 5% of NaCl solution first, then added salt up to 10% and 15%, respectively, on the 3rd and 15th day, finally added salt to make inyu contain 20% NaCl on 30th day;Type c: gradient addition of salt as Type b along with protease, flavourzyme, which were dilutions of enzyme by 100、300 and 500 fold. Enzyme activity were 66.56、22.01及11.37 Unit/ml. Results indicated that pH value for raw inyu made from three aging types ranged at 5.1 ~ 5.4, while acidities increased with aging time and then dropped a little. Activity were different by each of product. And it was getting lower during aging process. Type b and Type c exhibited higher protease activity and so as total nitrogen(T.N). Especially, T.N content for raw inyu from Type c with addition of 100-fold diluted flavourzyme had reached the utmost value(2.6 g/100 ml)on the 14th day during aging. NH2-nitrogen contents and free amino acid also showed a similar tendency as T.N. Gradient addition of salt and addition of protease promoted aging effect so that increased quality of inyu.Browning for all aging types increased with aging time and then reduce during aging. Reducing sugar content of addition of salt at a time was higher than others. Alcohol content of addition of protease was the highest.
中文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
圖表索引………………………………………………………………. Ⅸ
壹、前言…………………………………………………………………1
一、研究動機及目的 1
二、文獻整理 3
(一)醬油之簡介 3
1.醬油之歷史 3
2.近代中國醬油之釀製…………………………………….4
(二)醬油之釀造 5
(三)醬油釀造過程之生物化學變化 6
1.麴菌、乳酸菌、酵母菌 6
2.固態麴、液態醪 7
3.色澤、風味、香氣 10
(四) 低鹽醬油之簡介 11
(五)蔭油之簡介 12
1.黑豆 13
2.製程 15
3.蔭油之香氣及風味 19
(六)蛋白質之酵素水解………………………………………20
1.蛋白質之酵素水解的歷史與演進……………………...20
2.蛋白質之酵素水解的優缺點…………………………...20
3.蛋白質水解酵素………………………………………...22
(七)F1avourzyme…………………………………………...…23
1. F1avourzyme 之簡介…………………………………..23
2. F1avourzyme 之應用…………………………………..23
貳、材料與方法………………………………………………………..24
一、實驗材料 24
二、實驗試藥 24
三、實驗流程設計 25
四、洗麴機具………………………………………………………30
五、分析方法 ...34
1.吸水率之測定…………………………………………..34
2.水分之測定……………………………………………..34
3. pH 值測定……………………………………………..34
4.酵素活性之測定………………………………………..34
5.游離胺基酸之測定……………………………………..35
6.總氮之測定……………………………………………..36
7.甲醛態氮之測定………………………………………..36
8.氨態氮之測定…………………………………………..37
9.胺基態氮之測定………………………………………..37
10.酸度之測定…………………………………………….37
11.色度之測定…………………………………………….38
12.還原糖之測定………………………………………….38
13.褐變之測定.……………………………………………38
14.酒精之測定…………………………………………….38
15.官能品評………………………………………… …….39
16.統計分析…………………………………………… …..39
參、結果與討論………………………………………………………....40
一、洗麴與否與洗麴機具之探討………………………………..40
1.豆麴經洗後之吸水率……………………………………40
2.豆麴水分之變化.................................................................41
3.釀造期間生蔭油pH值……………………….. ………….44
4.釀造期間生蔭油酸度之變化……………………………..44
5.豆麴蛋白酶活性之變化…………………………………..47
6.釀造期間生蔭油總氮之變化……………………………...49
7.釀造期間生蔭油胺基態氮之變化…………………………51
8.釀造期間生蔭油游離胺基酸之變化………………………54
9.釀造期間生蔭油L,a,b值之變化…………………………..57
10.洗麴裝置之探討…………………………………………..61
二、梯度加鹽及添加蛋白酶對蔭油影響之探討….………………..62
1.梯度加鹽天數之決定……………………………………….62
2.釀造期間水份、pH值及酸度變化之比較…………………63
3.釀造期間之蛋白酶活性…………………………………….68
4.釀造期間之總氮量………………………………………….71
5.釀造期間之胺基態氮量…………………………………... ..72
6.釀造期間之游離胺基酸………………………………….... 75
7.釀造期間之還原醣………………………………………….81
8.釀造期間之酒精…………………………………………….82
9.釀造期間之褐變…………………………………………….83
10.產品官能品評……………………………………………...87
肆、結論…………………………………………………………………….89
伍、參考文獻……………………………………………………………..... 90
圖表索引
Fig. 1 Manufacturing procedures of Inyu……………………………………..14
Fig. 2 Experimental process for washed koji effects on fermentation of Inyu...27
Fig. 3 Experimental process for gradient salt-adding method and protease effects on fermentation of Inyu.………………………………………………..28
Fig. 4 Mix-stirring machine……………………………………………………31
Fig. 5 Water-circulation machine………………………………………………32
Fig. 6 High pressure water-spraying machine…………………………………33
Fig. 7 Changes in moisture content of raw Inyu during aging process...43
Fig. 8 Changes in pH of raw Inyu during aging process……………………....45
Fig. 9 Changes in acidity of raw Inyu during aging process…………………...46
Fig. 10 Changes in total nitrogen of raw Inyu during aging process…………..50
Fig. 11 Spoilage of koji with different salt salt content during fermentation…..63
Fig. 12 Changes in moisture content of Inyu during aging process….……..….64
Fig. 13 Changes in pH of raw Inyu during aging process…….………………..66
Fig. 14 Changes in acidity of raw Inyu during aging process………………….67
Fig. 15 Changes in neutral protease activity of koji during aging process……..70
Fig. 16 Changes in total nitrogen of raw Inyu during aging process……...........73
Fig. 17 Changes in NH2-nitrogen contents of raw Inyu during aging process...74
Fig. 18 Changes in reducing sugar contents of raw Inyu during aging process..84
Fig. 19 Changes in alcohol contents of raw Inyu during aging process...……...85
Fig. 20 Changes in browing of raw Inyu during aging process……………..….86
Table 1 Experimental detail steps for gradient salt-adding method and protease
effects on fermentation of Inyu……………………………………….29
Table 2 Changes in rate of water absorption rate during washing koji……….42
Table 3 Changes in neutral protease activity of koji in raw Inyu during aging process…………………………………………………………………48
Table 4 Changes in NH2-nitrogen contents of raw Inyu during aging process..53
Table 5 Comparisons of the contents of free amino acids in raw inyu during age period…………………………………………………………………..55
Table 6 Changes in value of L,a,b in raw Inyu after aging for 30 days……….58
Table 7 Changes in value of L,a,b in raw Inyu after aging for 60 days……….59
Table 8 Changes in value of L,a,b in raw Inyu after aging for 90 days……….60
Table 9 Comparisons the contents of free amino acids in raw inyu during aging process.…………………………………………………………………80
Table 10 Sensory evaluation for Inyu products...………………………………88
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