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研究生:蔡惠利
研究生(外文):Hui-Li Tsai
論文名稱:巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇之呈味與抗氧化性質
論文名稱(外文):Taste Quality, Antioxidant Properties of Agaricus blazei, Agrocybe cylindracea, Boletus edulis and Coprinus comatus
指導教授:毛正倫毛正倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jeng-Leun Mau, Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:巴西蘑菇茶樹菇牛肝菌雞腿菇呈味特性抗氧化性質
外文關鍵詞:Agaricus blazei esAgrocybe cylindraceaBoletus edulisCoprinus comatustaste qualityantioxidant properti
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摘要
巴西蘑菇(Agaricus blazei Murill)、茶樹菇(Agrocybe cylindracea)、牛肝菌(Boletus edulis)和雞腿菇(Coprinus comatus)為食藥用真菌類,因含有豐富的醣類、膳食纖維、蛋白質、維生素和礦物質,常作為健康食品開發的材料。本研究針對上述四種菇類子實體進行一般成分及呈味性質分析,並利用不同溶劑(乙醇及熱水)萃取,所得之萃取物再用以進行抗氧化性質和天然抗氧化成分之測定。
在一般成分分析上,四種菇類風乾物之水分含量皆在8.75-10.86 % 之間,而粗蛋白、粗脂肪、粗纖維及醣類的含量,四者之間都有差異,其中醣類的含量在此四種菇類之一般組成中最多;而各成分含量則分別以巴西蘑菇之粗蛋白(26.74%)、牛肝菌所含之粗脂肪(5.76%)、茶樹菇之粗纖維(19.54%)以及雞腿菇所含之醣類(58.37%)等含量為最多。
菇類的呈味成分包括可溶性糖類和糖醇、有機酸、游離胺基酸和核苷酸,經分析後發現,此四種菇類子實體所含的可溶性糖,包含有阿拉伯糖(arabitol)、甘露糖醇(mannitol)、葡萄糖(glucose)、肌醇(myo-inositol)和蕈糖(trehaloae),而總糖含量則以茶樹菇所含者(225.08 mg/g)較高。其次由游離胺基酸及核苷酸之分析得知,此四種菇類皆含有人體所需之必需胺基酸及鮮味物質,其中麩胺酸(glutamic acid)、天冬胺酸(aspartic acid )、離胺酸(lysine)、酪胺酸(tyrosine)等之含量較高;其呈味特性以巴西蘑菇鮮味胺基酸含量(4.40 mg/g)與苦味胺基酸含量(4.73 mg/g)為最高。總核苷酸含量多寡依序為雞腿菇 (15.08 mg/g)>茶樹菇(8.56 mg/g)~巴西蘑菇(8.00 mg/g)>牛肝菌(2.76 mg/g)。
檢測巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇等之乙醇萃取物之抗氧化力方面,以雞腿菇的EC50值(0.58 mg/ml)最佳;四種樣品的還原力在10.0 mg/ml的濃度時,以巴西蘑菇(0.69)的效果為最高;在濃度5 mg/ml的情況下,對1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團的清除效果,以巴西蘑菇乙醇萃取物最佳(94.87%);於10 mg/ml濃度時,對亞鐵離子之螯合能力依序為牛肝菌(50.98%)~ 巴西蘑菇(48.55%)> 雞腿菇(40.71%)~ 茶樹菇(39.92%)。
檢測比較四種菇類熱水萃取物之抗氧化力,以茶樹菇的EC50值(0.91 mg/ml)最佳;在10.0 mg/ml的濃度時,以牛肝菌熱水萃取物(1.18)的還原力為最佳;在10 mg/ml濃度時,對1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團的清除效應,以雞腿菇熱水萃取物最佳(50.61%);於10 mg/ml濃度時,四種樣品對亞鐵離子之螯合能力依序為茶樹菇(90.40)~雞腿菇(89.47)> 巴西蘑菇(82.60)> 牛肝菌(67.91%)。在天然抗氧化成分含量方面,四種菇的總酚類含量皆高於生育酚類含量,其中以巴西蘑菇乙醇萃取物之總酚含量(5.80 mg/g)和牛肝菌熱水萃取物兩者總酚之含量(5.81 mg/g)最高。
綜合上述得知,四種菇類皆含有豐富的營養成分及必需胺基酸和鮮味物質;在抗氧化效果及生理活性物質逐一被證實的情況下,不僅成為高蛋白質、低脂質及無膽固醇的健康食品,更提供食品調味的新選擇,因此在菇類保健食品之開發方面頗具潛力。
關鍵字:巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌、雞腿菇、呈味特性、抗氧化性質。
Abstract
Agaricus blazei Murill, Agrocybe cylindracea, Boletus edulis and Coprinus comatus are edible and medicinal mushrooms. Because of their richness in carbohydrate, dietary fiber, protein, vitamins and minerals, they usually act as healthy materials. The study aims to analysis the proximate composition, taste quality from fruit bodies, then to obtain extracts with different solvents, and to examine their antioxidant properties.
According to the analyzed of the proximate compositions in these four fruit bodies, the moisture contents of them ranged from 8.75 to 10.86%. Based on dry weight, some differences were found among them. All fruit bodies were high in carbohydrate content. The highest values of the components in these four mushrooms are crude protein(26.74 %)in A. blazei, crude fat(5.76 %)in B. edulis, crude fiber(19.54%)in A. cylindracea and carbohydrate (58.37%)in C. comatus .
The non-volatile taste components in these mushrooms include soluble sugars, free amino acid and flavor 5''-nucleotides. These four mushrooms contained arabitol, mannitol, glucose and trehalose. But A. cylindracea had higher amount of sugar in total. On the other hand, the result of total free amino acid and flavor 5''-nucleotides assay showed that these four mushrooms contained umami taste and abundant essential amino acid. Among them, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, lysine and tyrosine were found to be four major free amino acids. Contents of MSG-like and bitter components were significantly high in A. blazei(4.40 and 4.73 mg/g). Contents of total 5''-nucleotides were in the descending order of C. comatus(15.08 mg/g) > A. cylindracea (8.56 mg/g) ~ A. blazei (8.00 mg/g) > B. edulis (2.76 mg/g).
In the antioxidant activity by the conjugated diene method of ethanolic extracts from A. blazei, A. cylindracea, B. edulis and C. comatus, the EC50 values of C. comatus(0.58 mg/ml)was the lowest, The reducing powers of ethanolic extracts from A. blazei(0.69 mg/ml)were better than others at 10.0 mg/ml. The ethanolic extracts from A. blazei, A. cylindracea, B. edulis and C. comatus fruit bodies scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals by 94.87, 89.16, 88.76 and 84.52% at 5 mg/ml, respectively. At 10 mg/ml, chelating abilities were in the order of B. edulis(50.98%)~ A. blazei(48.55%)> C. comatus(40.71%)~ A. cylindracea(39.92%) Over all, these antioxidant properties increased with increasing concentration.
The hot-water extracts from A. blazei, A. cylindracea, B. edulis and C. comatus, the EC50 values of A. cylindracea(0.91 mg/ml)was the lowest, The reducing powers of hot-water extracts from B. edulis(1.18 mg/ml)were better than others at 10.0 mg/ml. Excellent scavenging ability on 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radicals (50.6%) was observed with hot extract from C. comatus at 10.0 mg/ml. The chelating abilities were in the order of A. cylindracea(90.40%) ~ C. comatus (89.47%)> A. blazei(82.60%) > B. edulis(67.91%), at 10 mg/ml.
Total phenols were the major naturally occurring antioxidant components found in all samples. Among them, the ethanolic extracts from A. blazei(5.80 mg/g) and the hot-water extracts from B. edulis (5.81 mg/g) were the highest.
In conclusion, these four mushrooms contained abundant high protein, high fiber, high carbohydrate, low fat, umami taste and abundant essential amino acid. Mushrooms not only become nutrients of high protein, low fat and free cholesterol, but also provide an alternative for food flavor. Therefore, mushrooms have great potential as healthy food or flavoring agent.
Keyword: Agaricus blazei, Agrocybe cylindracea, Boletus edulis, Coprinus comatus, taste quality, antioxidant properties
目 錄
表次.................................................. xiv
圖次.................................................. xvi
附表...................................................xix
附圖...................................................xviii
前言...................................................1
文獻整理...............................................3
一、菇類的機能.........................................3
二、巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇之介紹.............5
三、菇類的呈味特性.....................................16
四、抗氧化性質.........................................24
材料與方法.............................................34
一、實驗材料...........................................34
1. 巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體..............34
2. 試藥................................................34
二、實驗方法...........................................35
(一)巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體樣品之製備.35
1. 樣品粉末製備........................................35
2. 樣品乙醇萃取物製備..................................35
3. 樣品熱水萃取物製備..................................35
4. 實驗架構............................................36
(二)巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體之一般成分分析.....................................................37
1. 水分之測定..........................................37
2. 脂質之測定..........................................37
3. 蛋白質之測定........................................38
4. 灰分之測定..........................................38
5. 粗纖維之測定........................................38
6. 還原醣之測定........................................39
(三)巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體之呈味品質分析 ..............................................39
1. 可溶性糖之測定..................................... 40
2. 游離胺基酸之測定................................... 40
3. 核苷酸之測定........................................42
(四)巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇不同萃取物之抗
氧化性質 ...................................... 43
1. 抗氧化力分析測定(共軛雙烯法)..................... 43
2. 還原力測定......................................... 44
3. 清除1, 1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團(DPPH)能力測定....... 44
4. 清除羥自由基能力測定............................... 45
5. 螯合亞鐵離子能力測定............................... 45
(五)巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體不同萃取物
之抗氧化成分分析.................................46
1. 抗壞血酸含量測定................................... 46
2. -胡蘿蔔素測定.................................... 46
3. 生育醇測定......................................... 47
4. 總酚類化合物測定................................... 48
(六)統計分析........................................ 48
結果與討論............................................ 49
一、巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體之一般組成...50
二、巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體之呈味特性...52
1. 可溶性糖類之測定....................................52
2. 游離胺基酸之測定....................................55
3. 核苷酸之組成........................................58
三、巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體乙醇及熱水
萃取物之萃取率 .....................................63
四、巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體不同萃取物
之抗氧化性質.......................................63
1. 巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體不同萃取物
之抗氧化力.........................................63
2. 巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體不同萃取物
之還原力...........................................65
3. 巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體不同萃取物
清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團之能力...................71
4. 巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體不同萃取物
清除羥自由基之能力..................................81
5. 巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體不同萃取物
螯合亞鐵離子之能力................................. 89
6. 巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體不同萃取物
抗氧化性質之EC50................................... 94
五、巴西蘑菇、茶樹菇、牛肝菌和雞腿菇子實體不同萃取物
之抗氧化成分分析.................................. 96
結論..................................................102
參考文獻..............................................105
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