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研究生:翁竹君
研究生(外文):Chu-Chun Weng
論文名稱:鬱金之抗氧化及抗致突變性質
論文名稱(外文):Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Properties of Curcuma aromatica Salisb
指導教授:毛正倫毛正倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jeng-Leun Mau, Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:鬱金薑黃川鬱金精油抗氧化性質抗致突變性質
外文關鍵詞:Curcuma longaCurcuma aromaticaCurcuma sichuanensisantioxidant propertiesantimutagenic properties
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本研究係針對鬱金(Curcuma aromatica Salisb.)之乾燥塊莖進行一般成分分析,再以乙醇及熱水萃取所得之萃取物,進行抗氧化性質之評估,測定是否含有一些天然的抗氧化成分,以及進行其抗致突變性之測定。此外,利用鬱金、薑黃(Curcuma longa)、川鬱金(Curcuma sichuanensis)之精油,進行抗氧化性質評估及香氣成分分析。
一般成分分析方面,鬱金是一種碳水化合物含量(65.67%)極高之植物。鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物之萃取率,分別為9.02%和9.21%。在抗氧化性質中抗氧化力方面:鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物,在1 mg/ml濃度下,抗氧化能力分別為97.10% 和 81.41%。在濃度20 mg/ml下,還原力依序為乙醇萃取物(0.95)> 熱水萃取物(0.59)。濃度5 mg/ml時,捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團(DPPH)能力方面,以乙醇萃取物(100.84%)顯著高於熱水萃取物(68.20%)。捕捉羥自由基(hydroxyl radical)方面,在濃度20 mg/ml下,熱水萃取物之捕捉羥自由基能力為64.72%,而乙醇萃取物之捕捉效果不佳。螯合亞鐵離子方面,濃度5 mg/ml時,以熱水萃取物螯合能力(99.40%)大於乙醇萃取物(29.74%)。
在抗氧化成分分析上,乙醇萃取物含有53.34 mg/g總酚類顯著高於熱水萃取物(14.08 mg/g)及鬱金粉末(10.51 mg/g)。三者之總生育醇含量在0.15~0.38 mg/g之間,至於抗壞血酸和-胡蘿蔔素之含量則未分析出。
在抗致突變部分,使用Ames test方法,以鼠傷寒沙門桿菌(Salmonella typhimurium)TA 98和TA100為試驗菌株,使用直接致突變劑NQNO(不加S9混合物)與間接突變劑B[a]P(加S9混合物)來探討鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物之抗致突變性。結果顯示,有及無添加S9混合物之熱水萃取物在0.05、0.1、0.5、1、2和5 mg/plate劑量範圍下,對S. typhimurium TA98和TA100不具毒性和致突變性;乙醇萃取物在1 mg/plate劑量,對S. typhimurium TA98具有毒性,而在2 mg/plate劑量下,乙醇萃取物對S. typhimurium TA100具毒性。在抗致突變試驗方面,鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物皆具抗致突變性,以乙醇萃取物有較佳的抗致突變性。
精油組成方面,以水蒸氣蒸餾-溶劑萃取裝置分離鬱金(C. aromatica)、薑黃(C. longa)和川鬱金(C. sichuanensis)之精油,並經氣相層析儀(GC)及氣相層析質譜儀(GC/MS)進行分析鑑定。由結果得知,各精油之萃取率依序為薑黃 (9.85 mg/g) > 鬱金 (7.11 mg/g) > 川鬱金 (3.21 mg/g)。鬱金及薑黃精油共鑑定出23種化合物,包括10種萜烯類、6種醇類、2種酮類、2種酯類及3種其他化合物;川鬱金則鑑定出21種化合物,比前兩者少4-terpineol、caryophyllene兩種化合物。三種植物精油之主要化合物為curcumol、1,8-cineole、cis--elemenone、humulene oxide及-cadinene;其中鬱金精油以curcumol含量最多(35.77%);薑黃和川鬱金精油則以cis--elemenone含量最多(分別為49.03%和43.52%)。
精油之抗氧化能力方面,在濃度20 mg/ml下,抗氧化能力以薑黃(99.12%)> 川鬱金(95.44%)> 鬱金(50.34%)。濃度20 mg/ml時,捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團(DPPH)能力方面,以鬱金的捕捉能力最佳(85.60%),其次為薑黃(73.78%)、川鬱金(61.16%)。
This research used the rhizome of Curcuma aromatica to study its proximate composition, and antioxidant properties and antimutagenic activity of its ethanolic, hot-water extracts, and to evaluate the antioxidant properties and components of essential oils extracts from the rhizome of C. aromatica, C. longa L and C. sichuanensis.
In the proximate composition, C. aromatica contained high carbohydrate contents (65.67%). Using the conjugated diene method, the ethanolic and hot-water extracts from the rhizome of C. aromatica showed high antioxidant activities (97.10% and 81.41%) at 1 mg/ml, respectively. At 20 mg/ml, reducing powers were in the order of ethanolic extracts (0.95) > hot-water extracts (0.59). Ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of C. aromatica showed an excellent scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radicals (100.84%) at 5 mg/ml, higher than that of hot-water extracts (68.20%). The scavenging ability of hot-water extracts from the rhizome of C. aromatica on hydroxyl free radicals was the highest (64.72%) at 20 mg/ml. At 5 mg/ml, chelating abilities of the ethanolic and hot-water extracts on ferrous ions were 29.47 and 99.40%, respectively. The hot-water extract showed better chelating effect than ethanolic extract.
Total phenols were the major naturally occurring antioxidant components found in ethanolic and hot-water extracts. The ethanolic and hot-water extracts from the rhizome of C. aromatica had been tested for their antimutagenic properties against direct-acting mutagen of NQNO (without S9 mix) and indirect-acting mutagen of B[a]P (add S9 mix), using the Samonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Six different doses (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 mg/plate) were used.
In hot-water extract, all the tested extracts showed no toxicity and mutagenicity. But, ethanolic extract at 1mg/plate showed toxicity toward TA98. At 2mg/plate, ethanolic extract showed toxicity toward TA100. The ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of C. aromatica showed best antimutagenicity effect.
The essential oils of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. sichuanensis obtained by simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction, were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The yields of essential oils of C. longa, C. aromatica and C. sichuanensis were 9.85, 7.11 and 3.21 mg/g, respectively. The 23 components of essential oils of C. longa and C. aromatica had been identified by GC-MS, including 10 teperenes, 6 alcohols, 2 ketones and 2 esters. The 21 components of essential oils of C. sichuanensis were identified, but lack of 4-terpineol and caryophyllene. The major constituents of essential oils of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. sichuanensis were curcumol, 1,8-cineole, cis--elemenone, humulene oxide and -cadinene. The higher percentage (35.77%) of curcumol was the essential oil of C. aromatica. The higher percentage (49.03% and 43.52%) of cis--elemenone were the essential oils of C. longa and C. sichuanensis.
Using the conjugated diene method, at 20 mg/ml, antioxidant activities of essential oils were in the order of C. longa (99.12%) > C. sichuanensis (95.44%) > C. aromatica (50.34%). At 20 mg/ml, the scavenging ability of essential oils of C. aromatica, C. longa and C. sichuanensis on 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radicals were 85.60, 73.78 and 61.16%, respectively.
表次 ix
圖次 xi
附表 xiii
附圖 xiv
前言 . 1
文獻整理 3
一、鬱金、薑黃、川鬱金的介紹 3
二、鬱金的生理活性 5
三、抗氧化性質 9
四、常見的誘突變物和抗致突變物 20
五、精油的萃取 32
材料與方法 34
一、實驗材料 34
1. 鬱金、薑黃、川鬱金 34
2. 試藥 34
3. 標準致突變劑 35
4. Ames test 實驗用之培養基 35
5. 試驗菌株 35
6. 老鼠肝臟酵素(S9) 35
二、實驗方法(實驗架構) 35
(一)鬱金樣品之製備 35
1. 鬱金粉末樣品之製備 35
2. 鬱金乙醇萃取物製備 35
3. 鬱金熱水萃取物製備 37
4. 鬱金精油製備 37
(二)鬱金之一般成分分析 37
1. 水分之測定 37
2. 脂質之測定 37
3. 蛋白質之測定 38
4. 灰分之測定 38
5. 粗纖維之測定 39
6. 還原糖之測定 39
(三)鬱金不同萃取物之抗氧化性質分析 39
1. 抗氧化力測定(共軛雙烯法) 39
2. 還原力測定 40
3. 捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團(DPPH)能力測定 40
4. 捕捉羥自由基能力測定 41
5. 螯合亞鐵離子能力測定 41
(四)鬱金不同萃取物之抗氧化成分分析 41
1. 總酚類化合物測定 41
2. 抗壞血酸含量測定 42
3. -胡蘿蔔素測定 42
4. 生育醇測定 43
(五)鬱金不同萃取物之抗致突變性質分析 43
1. 毒性試驗 43
2. 致突變性試驗 44
3. 抗致突變性試驗 44
(1) 標準致突變劑溶液之製備 44
(2) 抗致突變試驗方法 45
(六)鬱金、薑黃、川鬱金之揮發性成分分析 45
(七)統計分析 47
結果與討論 47
一、鬱金之一般成分分析 47
二、鬱金乙醇及熱水萃取物之萃取率 47
三、鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物之抗氧化性質 47
1. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物之抗氧化力 47
2. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物之還原力 50
3. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團
之能力 55
4. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物捕捉羥自由基之能力 56
5. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物螯合亞鐵離子之能力 59
6. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物抗氧化性質之EC50 67
四、鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物之抗氧化成分分析 67
五、鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物對於Salmonella typhimurium
TA98及TA 100之毒性、致突變性及抗突變性質 72
(一)鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物對於Salmonella typhimurium
TA98之毒性、致突變性及抗突變性 72
1. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物對於S. typhimurium TA98
之毒性 72
2. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物對於S. typhimurium TA98
之致突變性 75
3. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物對於S. typhimurium TA98
之抗致突變性 75
(二)鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物對於Salmonella typhimurium
TA100之毒性、致突變性及抗突變性質 83
1. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物對於S. typhimurium TA100
之毒性 83
2. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物對於S. typhimurium TA100
之致突變性 86
3. 鬱金乙醇和熱水萃取物對於S. typhimurium TA100
之抗致突變性 86
六、鬱金、薑黃和川鬱金精油之萃取率 94
七、鬱金、薑黃和川鬱金精油之成份分析 94
八、鬱金、薑黃和川鬱金精油之抗氧化性質 99
1. 鬱金、薑黃和川鬱金精油之抗氧化力 99
2. 鬱金、薑黃和川鬱金精油捕捉1,1-二苯基-2-苦味肼基團
之能力 103
結論 106
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