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研究生:方于芃
研究生(外文):Yu-Pun Fang
論文名稱:改良式醱酵對普洱茶機能性成分之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of bacterial strains on functional properties and ingredients of of Pu’er tea made by an improved fermentation method
指導教授:陳錦樹陳錦樹引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Shuh Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:普洱茶醱酵
外文關鍵詞:Pu''er teafermentation
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本研究以15年大黃印及25年大紅印兩種市售普洱茶為樣品,分離篩選菌種並大量培養單一菌種後與茶菁混合進行普洱茶之改良式醱酵,主要探討不同菌種及醱酵時間對普洱茶水萃取物其機能性保健成分變化之影響,包括不同醱酵時間及菌種之醱酵成品其茶湯顏色、總多酚含量、清除超氧離子及DPPH離子能力。結果顯示,茶湯色澤在接種同菌株不同時間之L值並無明顯差異,a值、b值及總色差E值隨醱酵時間增長而增加。接種不同單一菌株於毛茶經醱酵7至42天之總多酚含量隨著醱酵時間增長有增加之趨勢,其中又以R9 之含量 (3285.3 mg/100g) 最高,Y11次之 (3190.5 mg/100g)。清除超氧離子之能力於醱酵第7、14、21、28、35及42天,分別為86.05∼92.62%、90.12∼99.22%、88.20∼97.89%、82.49∼98.75%、83.10∼98.69% 及88.78∼98.18%。清除DPPH離子之能力與總多酚含量有相同之趨勢,亦即隨著醱酵時間之增長其清除DPPH能力越高,於醱酵第42天時為80.38∼92.59% 其中以R9清除率最高,Y11次之。
比較以R9與Y11兩種菌株所進行之改良式醱酵普洱茶與八種市售普洱茶之DPPH離子清除率及γ-胺基丁酸含量,發現在DPPH離子清除率方面,除較易武春茶及大紅印低外,與其他市售品則非常接近;另外R9與Y11兩種改良式醱酵普洱茶之γ-胺基丁酸含量分別為1663.5g/g及1921.3g/g,除比儲藏六年之易武春茶高外,其餘皆低於儲藏八年以上之市售產品,唯其含量均比未醱酵之茶菁含量明顯增加。
The purpose of this study was mainly on studying changes in the functional components of Pu’er tea during an improved fermentation method by using bacteria isolated from two famous commercial Pu’er teas (Ta-Huang-In and Ta-Hon-In). The method included mixing isolated strains (R9 and Y11) with tea leaves initially, and then fermented under 60~70 RH% at room temperature for 6 weeks. Changes in tea color, total polyphenol, effects of scavenging superoxide radical , and scavenging DPPH radical during fermentation were investigated. Results showed that the L values of tea broths made by same strain but different fermentation time were not significantly different, however the values of “a”,“b” and ΔE value increased with time. The total polyphenol contents of tea made by either one of the two strains.increased during fermentation Results showed that the tea made by the strain R9 (3285.3 mg/100g) was higher than that (3190.5mg/100g) of Y11. The abilities of scavenging superoxide radical of R9 were 86.05∼92.62%, 90.12∼99.22%, 88.20∼97.89%, 82.49∼98.75%, 83.10∼98.69% and 88.78∼98.18% of those tea fermented for 7, 14, 28, 35 and 42 days, respectively. Similarly, there were 86.05∼92.62%, 90.12∼99.22%, 88.20∼97.89%, 82.49∼98.75%, 83.10∼98.69% and 88.78∼98.18% for Y11, respectively. The abilities of scavenging DPPH radical for all tea in the experiment were corrllated to total polyphenol content, so that the abilities of scavenging DPPH became higher and higher as fermentation time longer. The scavenging DPPH effect of R9 fermented for 42 days was the highest (80.38∼92.59%), and Y11 was the second.
目 錄
表次.………………………….…………….…........…………..V
圖次…………………………………....…...…………….…..VII中文摘要 …………………………………..…………………………1
英文摘要 ……………..……………………………..…………………2
壹、前言 ..…………………………………..………………………….4
貳、文獻整理 ……………………..……………………….…...……...5
一、茶葉與製程介紹………………….…….…………………………5
(一)中國茶之文化發展沿革………………………………………..5
(二)茶葉的分類及製程簡介…..……………………………………5
(三)茶葉的組成及抗氧化特性……………….…….……………....6
(四)茶葉的生理功能………..……………………………….….…17
(五)影響茶葉成分變化因子..…………………………….………20
(六)茶葉製造過程中多酚化合物之變化..……………….………21
二、普洱茶發展沿革簡介…………………………..………………..23
(一)普洱之名源由……………………………………...………….23
(二)普洱茶之發展史探源…...…………………………………….23
(三)普洱茶分類與製程……………………...……….……………26
(四)普洱茶生理功能及研究………………...……….……………27
(五)普洱茶之黴菌…………………………...……….……………29
三、自由基與抗氧化作用…………………………………………....29
(一)自由基與活性氧…………………………………………..…..29
(二)兒茶素與自由基及活性氧之清除關係…………….………...31
(三)抗氧化物種類……………………………………….………...33
四、γ-胺基丁酸介紹………………………………………….……..33
(一)γ-胺基丁酸生理作用及功能………………………….....…..33
(二)γ-胺基丁酸之特性...……………………………….………...34
(三)γ-胺基丁酸之應用...................………………………..……..34
參、材料與方法……..………………………………..……………….35
一、試驗材料………….…………………………..…….………..…35
(一)茶葉樣品..……………………………………………....…..35
(二)化學試劑 ………………………………………………..…..35
(三)儀器及設備 ……………………………………………..…..37
二、實驗方法 ………………………………………………………..37
(一)本研究之試驗流程圖…………………………………………37
(二)菌種分離及篩選…………………………………………...….37
1. 菌種培養與篩選………...……………………………………37
2. 菌種活化……………………………...………………………39
3. 接菌………………………………………………...…………39
4. 改良式醱酵普洱茶菌株之選擇……………………………39
5. 菌量計數……………………………...………………………39
(三)改良式醱酵普洱茶之分析取樣點……………………………39
(四)機能性成分含量分析…………………………………………39
1. 茶湯泡製與茶湯色澤測定………………………...…………39
2. 總多元酚含量測定…………………...………………………41
3. 清除超氧陰離子的能力…………………………...…………41
4. DPPH離子清除能力測定…………….………………………42
(五)改良式醱酵普洱茶與市售普洱茶之抗氧化力分析…………43
1. 水分含量測定……………………………………...…………43
2. 抗氧化力分析………………………...………………………43
(六)改良式醱酵普洱茶與市售普洱茶之γ-胺基丁酸含量分析...43
1. 檢品衍生化………...……..……………………..……………43
2. 高效液相層析儀分析條件…...………………………………44
3. γ-胺基丁酸標準曲線...…………………………...…………44
4. 茶葉中γ-胺基丁酸分析方法之回收率測試...…...…………46
5. γ-胺基丁酸分析方法之精密度…..…………………………47
6. 改良式普洱茶與市售普洱茶γ-胺基丁酸含量分析…..……49
三、統計分析方法 ………………………………………………..49
肆、結果與討論…………………………………………….…....…..50
一、改良式醱酵普洱茶之機能性分析結果…………………………50
(一)菌數測定………………………………………………………50
(二)茶湯色澤測定結果……………………………………………50
(三)總多酚含量測定結果…………………………………………58
(四)清除超氧離子能力……………………………………………65
(五)清除DPPH離子能力……………………..……………….…65
二、改良式醱酵普洱茶與市售普洱茶之抗氧化力分析結果………68
(一)水分含量測定…………………………………………………71
(二)抗氧化力分析…………………………………………………71
三、改良式普洱茶與市售普洱茶之γ-胺基丁酸含量分析……...…71
伍、結論………………...…………………..…………………..……83
陸、參考文獻……………………………….…………………..….....84
柒、附錄……………………………...……….…………………..…...96
表 次
表一、茶葉中機能性成分的特性………………………………………9
表二、綠茶中主要多元酚類成分及含量………………………………10
表三、紅茶醱酵過程中生成的多酚化合物……………………………22
表四、食品中的天然抗氧化劑主要來源………………………………32
表五、普洱茶樣品來源表………………………………………………36
表六、改良式醱酵普洱茶醱酵期間菌數之變化………………….…51
表七、市售普洱茶樣品茶湯水色之L、a、b值………………….….…52
表八、不同菌種及不同醱酵時間之普洱茶茶湯之L值變化……….…53
表九、不同菌種及不同醱酵時間之普洱茶茶湯之a值變化…….……56
表十、不同菌種及不同醱酵時間之普洱茶茶湯之b值變化…………59
表十一、不同菌種及不同醱酵時間之普洱茶茶湯之E值變化……61
表十二、不同菌種及醱酵時間之普洱茶中總多酚含量….…………63
表十三、不同菌種及醱酵時間之普洱茶中清除超氧離子能力………66
表十四、不同菌種不同醱酵時間之普洱茶中清除DPPH離子能力.…69
表十五、不同來源普洱茶檢品之水分含量……………………………72
表十六、普洱茶中之γ-胺基丁酸回收率………………...……………78
表十七、普洱茶中之γ-胺基丁酸在同日間與異日間之分析精
密度…………..…..…………………………………………80
圖 次
圖一、茶葉製造與分類圖……………………………………..…………7
圖二、中國茶六色系之加工製程流程圖………………………………8
圖三、茶中兒茶素類的可能生成路徑…………………………………12
圖四、茶葉中兒茶素類之化學結構式圖………………………………13
圖五、茶黃質類之化學結構式圖………………………………………15
圖六、茶黃質及茶紅質類可能生成路徑……………….………...……24
圖七、普洱茶生熟茶之加工製程流程圖.………………………...……28
圖八、本研究之實驗設計流程圖………………………………………38
圖九、改良式醱酵普洱茶之分析取樣點………………………………40
圖十、γ-胺基丁酸衍生化反應圖……………………...………………45
圖十一、改良式醱酵普洱茶Y11及R9與市售普洱茶之清除DPPH
離子能力比較圖……………………………..………………73
圖十二、γ-胺基丁酸之標準曲線液相層析圖譜………………...……75
圖十三、γ-胺基丁酸標準曲線圖……………………………..…….…76
圖十四、普洱茶中之γ-胺基丁酸回收率液相層析圖譜…....…...……77
圖十五、普洱茶中之γ-胺基丁酸含量測定之高效能液相層析圖譜...81
圖十六、R9及Y11改良式醱酵普洱茶與市售普洱茶γ-胺基丁酸
含量比較………………………………...….……………...…82
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