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研究生:陳瑞玟
研究生(外文):Rai-Wen Chen
論文名稱:屠前緊迫對台灣土雞與白肉雞生化特性之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of ante-mortem stressors on biochemistry characteristics of Taiwan country chicken and broiler
指導教授:林亮全
指導教授(外文):Liang-Chuan Lin, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:台灣土雞緊迫生化特性
外文關鍵詞:Taiwan country chickenstressbiochemistry characteristic
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中文摘要
本試驗目的在探討雞隻施予屠前禁食及追趕緊迫處理在台灣土雞與白肉雞屠前緊迫狀態之差異及其對屠後酵素與蛋白質功能性之影響。在本試驗中分為四個處理組,第一組為屠前禁食12小時只供給飲水,且屠前不施予追趕緊迫;第二組為屠前禁食12小時只供給飲水,且於屠前施予人為追趕緊迫,跑步追趕雞隻使之連續不停運動,計時10分鐘(避免讓雞隻休息或者碰撞造成瘀傷);第三組為屠前正常供給飲水及飼料,且屠前不施予追趕緊迫;第四組為屠前正常供給飲水及飼料,且於屠前施予人為追趕10分鐘。測定項目包括:屠前血清性狀、放血率、肌肉總血原色素、血液pH值、肝臟pH值、屠後肌肉粗萃calpain及cathepsin D活性、肌原纖維與肌漿蛋白質溶解度、感官品評。
結果顯示:白肉雞與台灣土雞在屠前受到追趕緊迫,屠後有較低的血液pH值,較低的放血率及普遍會增加血清中glucose、Ca2+、CK、LDH與ALP濃度,其中台灣土雞較白肉雞血液pH下降較少,放血率較高,血清中CK及LDH濃度亦較低,且白肉雞由於緊迫和掙扎程度較高,造成放血不良而提高肌肉總血原色素。另外,台灣土雞較白肉雞有較高的肝臟pH值;而在蛋白質功能特性方面,白肉雞施予屠前緊迫處理,屠後有較高之粗萃calpain活性;而台灣土雞則相反,屠前施予追趕緊迫會使屠後胸肉有較低的粗萃calpain活性及屠後24小時有較高的cathepsin D活性;台灣土雞在蛋白質溶解度方面均以禁食處理加上屠前施予追趕緊迫組在屠後15min顯著有較高的肌原纖維蛋白和肌漿蛋白質溶解度(p<0.05),未禁食處理加上屠前施予緊迫組則有最低的蛋白質溶解度;在白肉雞則是以肌漿蛋白溶解度有一致性的結果,肌原纖維蛋白溶解度則無顯著差異。整體而言台灣土雞各組之蛋白質溶解度均較白肉雞為高。官能品評結果發現,白肉雞方面大致上以禁食處理加上屠前施予追趕緊迫組有較高外觀評分、較高多汁性評分、較低嫩度評分及較高總接受性;台灣土雞方面則大致上以禁食處理加上屠前施予追趕緊迫組有較低外觀評分、較低嫩度評分與較高咀嚼性評分,在總接受性則各組差異不大。
綜合以上結果,白肉雞接受屠前緊迫之後,所造成之血清酵素變化較台灣土雞顯著,且放血程度較差;而在屠後雖然有較高之calpain嫩化酵素活性,蛋白質溶解度也有提高(禁食處理之下),但在感官品評嫩度方面卻反而不被喜愛,且緊迫所造成各處理組之差異均較台灣土雞顯著,而台灣土雞接受屠前緊迫後,可能因為其較佳抗緊迫的特性使屠前肝醣含量仍很高,因而屠後乳酸堆積較多,肌肉pH值較低而影響肉質特性,但各處理組之差異不如白肉雞來的顯著,由此可推測台灣土雞可能比白肉雞有較佳之對抗緊迫能力。
關鍵詞:台灣土雞、緊迫、生化特性

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ante-mortem fasting and stress on stress reaction and changes of biochemistry characteristics post-mortem of Taiwan country chicken and broiler. All chickens were divided into four treatments, first, feed withdrawal for 12h and normal slaughter, second, feed withdrawal for 12h and chased for 10min before slaughter, third, feed withdrawal for 0 h and normal slaughter, and forth, withdrawal for 0 h and chased for 10 min before slaughter. Determine items include serum analysis of ante-mortem, bleeding rate, total heme pigment, blood pH, liver pH, activity of crude calpain and cathepsin D, myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein solubility, and panel evaluation.
The results showed that ante-mortem chasing resulted in lower blood pH, bleeding rate, and higher glucose, Ca2+, CK, LDH, and ALP level of serum in broiler and Taiwan country chicken. Especially, that had less decrease of blood pH, higher bleeding rate, and lower CK and LDH level of serum in Taiwan country chicken than broiler. Additionally, ante-mortem chasing in broiler resulted in higher total heme pigment by low bleeding degree because of stress and struggle. Liver pH was higher in Taiwan country chicken than broiler. Aspect of protein function, ante-mortem chasing in broiler resulted in higher activity of crude calpain post-mortem, on the contrary, ante-mortem chasing in Taiwan country chicken resulted in lower activity of crude calpain from breast and higher activity of cathepsin D post-mortem at 24h. however, ante-mortem chasing with feed withdrawal had significant higher myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein solubility (p<0.05) post-mortem at 15 min, and ante-mortem chasing without feed withdrawal had the lowest protein solubility in Taiwan country chicken. And, sarcoplasmic protein solubility in broiler had the same results as Taiwan country chicken, however, all treatment had no significant difference on myofibrillar protein solubility from broiler. On the whole, protein solubility in Taiwan country chicken was higher than broiler. The result of panel evaluation showed that ante-mortem chasing with feed withdrawal had higher scores of appearance, juiciness, total acceptability, and lower scores of tenderness in broiler. In addition, ante-mortem chasing with feed withdrawal had lower scores of appearance, tenderness, and higher chewiness, and it had no difference on total acceptability in Taiwan country chicken.
These results showed that changes of blood enzyme were more significant and the degree of bleeding was lower in broiler than Taiwan country chicken after ante-mortem chasing. Although ante-mortem chasing made higher calpain activity and protein solubility (with feed withdrawal) in broiler, the scores of tenderness wasn’t higher than control treatment. Additionally, the difference among all treatment in broiler were higher than Taiwan country chicken. On the contrary, in Taiwan country chicken, perhaps because of anti-stress ability resulted that glycogen content still high ante-mortem, so that higer lactic acid accumulation, and resulted lower pH of muscle, and effect on meat quality further. However, the difference among all treatment wasn’t significant in Taiwan country chicken than broiler. By these result, it is presumable that Taiwan country chicken herhaps has better anti-stress ability than broiler.
Key words: Taiwan country chicken, stress, biochemistry characterist

目   錄
頁次
壹、中文摘要 .............................................1
貳、前言 ..................................................3
參、文獻檢討 ..............................................5
一、台灣土雞與白肉雞之差異性探討 .........................5
二、血清與肌肉屠後代謝之變化 ..............................7
(一)ATP ................................................7
(二)肌肉蛋白分解酵素 ..................................10
(三)肌纖維蛋白的降解 ..................................13
三、屠後異常肉質之探討 ..................................16
(一)PSE成因 ...........................................16
(二)家禽出現異常肉質之問題 ............................16
(三)屠後pH對肉質影響 ..................................18
四、屠前處理對生理和生化特性之影響 ......................19
(一)不同屠前處理之比較 ................................19
1.禁食 ..............................................20
2.運輸 ..............................................21
3.吊掛 ..............................................23
4.昏迷 ..............................................23
(二)緊迫反應對血液性狀之影響 ..........................26
五、屠前緊迫與屠後肉質之關係 ............................27
(一)嫩度 .............................................28
(二)肉色 .............................................29
肆、材料與方法 ..........................................33
一、試驗材料 ...........................................33
二、測定項目與方法 .....................................35
(一)屠前血清性狀測定 .................................35
(二)放血率之測定 .....................................36
(三)肌肉中總血原色素含量測定 .........................37
(四)血液pH值之測定 ...................................38
(五)肝臟pH值之測定 ...................................38
(六)calpain活性 ......................................38
(七)cathepsin D活性 ..................................41
(八)蛋白質溶解度 .....................................43
(九)感官品評 .........................................45
(十)統計分析方法 ......................................46
伍、結果與討論 ..........................................47
一、屠前緊迫對血清性狀及放血程度之影響 .................47
(一)屠前血清性狀 .....................................47
(二)放血率(bleeding rate) ............................56
(三)肌肉總血原色素(total heme pigment) ...............58
(四)血液pH值 .........................................60
二、屠前緊迫對肌肉蛋白質功能性之影響 ...................63
(一)肝臟pH值 .........................................63
(二)粗萃calpain活性 ..................................65
(三)cathepsin D活性 .................................68
(四)蛋白質溶解度 .....................................73
1. 肌原纖維蛋白質溶解度 .............................73
2. 肌漿蛋白質溶解度 .................................76
(五)感官品評 .........................................81
陸、結論 ................................................90
柒、參考文獻 ............................................92
捌、英文摘要 ...........................................110
表   次
頁次
表1. 各種肌原纖維蛋白質的相對數量與位置 .................15
表2. 影響禽肉顏色的因子 .................................31
表3. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞在屠前血清中glucose濃度之影響 ..................................................48
表4. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞在屠前血清中Ca2+濃度之影響 ......................................................50
表5. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞在屠前血清中CK濃度之影響 ......................................................51
表6. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞在屠前血清中LDH濃度之影響 ......................................................53
表7. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞在屠前血清中ALP濃度之影響 ......................................................55
表8. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞屠後血液pH值之影響.61
表9. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞屠後肝臟pH值之影響.64
表10. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉在屠後15min粗依鈣酵素活性之影響 ......................................66
表11. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉在屠後24hr粗依鈣酵素活性之影響 ......................................67
表12. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉在屠後15min cathepsin D活性之影響 ...................................69
表13. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉在屠後24hr粗cathepsin D活性之影響 ...................................70
表14. 生屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉在屠後15min 肌原纖維蛋白質溶解度之影響 ........................74
表15. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉在屠後24hr肌原纖維蛋白質溶解度之影響 ................................75
表16. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉在屠後15min 肌漿蛋白質溶解度之影響 ..................................77
表17. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉在屠後24hr肌漿蛋白質溶解度之影響 ....................................78
圖   次
頁次
圖1. 死後肌肉中ATP之分解徑路 .............................9
圖2. calpain活化與自家分解機制圖 ........................11
圖3. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞屠後放血率之影響...57
圖4. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞屠後肌肉總血原色素之影響 ......................................................59
圖5. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉外觀官能評分之影響 ....................................................82
圖6. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉風味官能評分之影響 ....................................................83
圖7. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉嫩度官能評分之影響 ....................................................84
圖8. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉咀嚼性官能評分之影響 ..................................................86
圖9. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉多汁性官能評分之影響 ..................................................88
圖10. 屠前不同緊迫處理對台灣土雞與白肉雞胸肉及腿肉總接受性官能評分之影響 ..............................................89

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