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研究生:林鈺真
研究生(外文):Yu-Chen Lin
論文名稱:不同柑橘類果皮萃取液浸泡處理對生鮮雞腿肉貯存期間品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects of dipping in Citrus peel extracts on quality of chicken thigh during chilled storage
指導教授:林亮全
指導教授(外文):Liang-Chuan Lin, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:柑橘萃取貯存
外文關鍵詞:CitrusExtractStorage
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  • 被引用被引用:3
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本試驗之目的為評估柑橘類果皮萃取液與市售葡萄柚籽萃取液(Bio seeds)之總多酚類及總類黃酮含量與組成,並評估其抗氧化及抗菌能力。而後將生鮮白肉雞腿肉浸泡於柳橙、檸檬、柚子果皮萃取液及市售葡萄柚籽萃取液,置於PS保麗龍淺盤,並以PE保鮮膜進行包裝,包裝好之白肉雞腿置於4℃之冷藏櫃中貯存,比較其於第0、3、6及9天肉質之變化。
結果顯示:柳橙、檸檬、柚子果皮萃取液及葡萄柚籽萃取液之總多酚含量為30.70 ~ 52.32 mg / mL,總類黃酮含量則為2.12 ~ 5.35 mg / mL。而類黃酮組成方面,柚子果皮萃取液之柚皮苷(naringin)含量最多,橘皮苷(hesperidin)則以柳橙果皮萃取液之含量最高,槲皮酮(quercetin)含量則為140.11 ~ 144.66μg / mL。在清除DPPH自由基及還原力方面,隨著萃取液濃度之增加,其能力亦有增加之趨勢,而以檸檬果皮萃取液之效果最佳(P<0.05);在螯合亞鐵離子方面則以柳橙之能力最佳(P<0.05);另外以硫鐵法測定是以檸檬果皮萃取液具有較佳之抗氧化特性。以濾紙片擴散法測定抗菌能力,在不同濃度下市售葡萄柚籽萃取液均具有較佳之抑制效果,檸檬果皮萃取液則次之;將萃取液以50℃及100℃水浴加熱10或30分鐘處理對其抑菌能力並無影響。將生鮮白肉雞腿肉浸泡於柳橙、檸檬、柚子果皮萃取液及葡萄柚籽萃取液,於貯存第0天與第3天,浸泡檸檬果皮萃取液處理組之pH值顯著低於其他處理組(P<0.05)。在L值方面,隨著貯存時間之增加,各處理組及對照組之L值大致呈現下降之趨勢,其中以浸泡柳橙果皮萃取液之處理組下降幅度最大。貯存第0天,浸泡葡萄柚籽萃取液與檸檬果皮萃取液處理組之a與b值顯著低於其他處理組(P<0.05)。浸泡葡萄柚籽萃取液處理組之總生菌數與低溫菌數顯著低於其他處理組,至貯存第3天,浸泡柑橘類果皮萃取液處理組之總生菌數亦顯著低於對照組,而浸泡柚子果皮萃取液處理組之低溫菌數顯著低於對照組、檸檬及柳橙果皮萃取液處理組(P<0.05);浸泡檸檬、柳橙果皮萃取液及葡萄柚籽萃取液處理組之VBN值顯著低於對照組(P<0.05)。於貯存期間之保水性與TBA值各處理組間並無顯著差異(P>0.05)。在感官品評方面,則以浸泡柳橙果皮萃取液處理組有一較佳之總接受度(P<0.05)。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the contents of total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in Citrus peel extracts and marketed grapefruit seed extract(Bio seeds), the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Citrus peel extracts and Bio seeds, and the effects of dipping in citrus peel extracts on meat quality of chicken during chilled storage. Three samples of peels were analyzed, including orange, lemon and shaddock.
The results showed that the content of total phenolic compounds in Citrus peel extracts and Bio seeds distributed from 30.70 ~ 52.32 mg / mL. The content of total flavonoids distributed from 2.12 ~ 5.35 mg / mL. In composition of flavonoids of Citrus peel extracts and Bio seeds, naringin occurs a fairly high concentration in shaddock peel extract. Hesperidin occurs a fairly high concentration in orange peel extract. The content of quercetin in Citrus peel extracts distributed from 140.11 ~ 144.66μg / mL.
The free radical scavenging activity and reducing activity of Citrus peel extracts and Bio seeds would rise up with the increasing of the concentration of Citrus peel extracts and Bio seeds, and the highest free radical scavenging activity and reducing activity were observed for lemon peel extract(P<0.05). The extract from orange peel had better chelating ability than others. The antioxidant effect of Citrus peel extracts, in preventing the peroxidation of linoleic acid, was measured by thiocyanate method. Of the four extracts, the highest antioxidant activity was observed for lemon peel extract.
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Salmonella typhimurium were used respectively to detect the antimicrobial activity of Citrus peel extracts and Bio seeds. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed for Bio seeds. The Citrus peel extracts and Bio seeds were treated with 50 or 100℃ for 10 or 30 min, the results revealed that Citrus peel extracts and Bio seeds still possessed antimicrobial activities.
The chicken thigh were dipped in 3% orange, lemon, shaddock peel extracts or marketed grapefruit seed extract(Bio seeds), and compare with dipped in sterilized water(Control treatment). The treatments all stored at 4℃ to analyze for the variance during storage. At 0 and 3 days, lemon peel extract treatment has lower pH value(P<0.05). Orange peel extract had lower L value. At 0 day, Bio seeds and lemon peel extract treatments had lower a and b value than others(P<0.05). During chilled storage at 4℃, water holding capacity and TBA value of broiler thigh by various Citrus peel extracts and Bio seeds dipping treatment were not significantly different(P>0.05). As time goes on, total plate count and psychrotrophic plate count of Bio seeds treatment was significantly lower than others(P<0.05), and at 3 day, Citrus peel extract treatments had lower TPC than control treatment. In psychrotrophic plate count, at 3 day, shaddock peel extract treatment had lower psychrotrophic bacteria, and lemon, orange peel extract and Bio seed treatments has lower VBN value than control treatment(P<0.05). The result of panel evaluation showed that Orange peel extract treatment had higher scores of flavor and acceptability(P<0.05).
目錄
壹、中文摘要……………………………………………………………1
貳、前言…………………………………………………………………3
叁、文獻檢討……………………………………………………………5
一、食品保存之簡介……………………………………………………5
(一)食品腐敗與微生物之關係………………………………………5
(二)食品防腐劑之作用機制…………………………………………7
(三)食品防腐劑應具備之條件………………………………………9
(四)食品防腐劑之微生物生長抑制型式……………………………10
二、天然抑菌物質………………………………………………………11
(一)植物………………………………………………………………11
(二)動物………………………………………………………………13
(三)微生物……………………………………………………………14
三、柑橘類水果及其副產物……………………………………………16
(一)多酚化合物………………………………………………………18
(二)類黃酮……………………………………………………………18
(三)酚酸………………………………………………………………25
(四)抗壞血酸…………………………………………………………26
(五)類胡蘿蔔素………………………………………………………26
(六)果膠………………………………………………………………26
四、類黃酮之機能特性…………………………………………………27
(一)抗癌………………………………………………………………27
(二)防治光氧化作用…………………………………………………28
(三)抗發炎及抗過敏作用……………………………………………28
(四)增進心血管功效…………………………………………………29
(五)提高藥效…………………………………………………………30
(六)抗氧化力…………………………………………………………30
(七)抗微生物作用……………………………………………………33
肆、材料與方法…………………………………………………………35
Ⅰ、柑橘類果皮萃取液之抗氧化及抗菌作用…………………………35
一、材料…………………………………………………………………35
二、試驗方法……………………………………………………………35
(一)總酚類含量………………………………………………………35
(二)總類黃酮物質含量………………………………………………36
(三)類黃酮物質之鑑定………………………………………………37
(四)清除DPPH自由基能力……………………………………………38
(五)螯合亞鐵離子能力………………………………………………38
(六)還原力……………………………………………………………39
(七)抗氧化性…………………………………………………………39
(八)抑菌性之評估……………………………………………………41
Ⅱ、柑橘類果皮萃取液之應用…………………………………………43
一、材料…………………………………………………………………43
二、試驗方法……………………………………………………………43
(一)pH值………………………………………………………………43
(二)色澤………………………………………………………………43
(三)保水性……………………………………………………………43
(四)總生菌數…………………………………………………………44
(五)低溫菌數…………………………………………………………44
(六)揮發性鹽基態氮…………………………………………………45
(七)二-硫巴必妥酸值………………………………………………46
(八)感官品評…………………………………………………………46
Ⅲ、統計分析方法………………………………………………………47
伍、結果與討論…………………………………………………………48
一、柑橘類果皮萃取液機能性成分組成分析…………………………48
(一)總多酚含量………………………………………………………48
(二)總類黃酮含量……………………………………………………48
(三)類黃酮物質之鑑定………………………………………………50
二、柑橘類果皮萃取液抗氧化特性之探討……………………………51
(一)清除DPPH自由基能力……………………………………………51
(二)螯合亞鐵離子能力………………………………………………54
(三)還原力……………………………………………………………55
(四)抗氧化性…………………………………………………………57
三、柑橘類果皮萃取液抗菌特性之探討………………………………60四、柑橘類果皮萃取液之應用…………………………………………68
(一)pH值………………………………………………………………68
(二)色澤………………………………………………………………69
(三)保水性……………………………………………………………74
(四)總生菌數…………………………………………………………74
(五)低溫菌數…………………………………………………………77
(六)揮發性鹽基態氮…………………………………………………79
(七)二-硫巴必妥酸值………………………………………………79
(八)感官品評…………………………………………………………81
陸、結論…………………………………………………………………84
柒、參考文獻……………………………………………………………86
捌、英文摘要……………………………………………………………99
圖次
圖一、微生物腐敗之模式………………………………………… 8
圖二、柑橘類果實之剖面圖……………………………………… 17
圖三、類黃酮之基本結構………………………………………… 20
圖四、類黃酮之生物合成途徑…………………………………… 22
圖五、類黃酮之分類與其主要結構……………………………… 24
圖六、類黃酮結構官能基與高抗氧化力之關係………………… 32
圖七、不同濃度之柑橘類果皮萃取液、葡萄柚籽萃取液與
BHT清除DPPH自由基之能……………………………………53
圖八、不同濃度之柑橘類果皮萃取液、葡萄柚籽萃取液與
BHT螯合亞鐵離子之能力……………………………………56
圖九、不同濃度之柑橘類果皮萃取液與葡萄柚籽萃取液之
還原能力……………………………………………………58
圖十、柑橘類果皮萃取液、葡萄柚籽萃取液與BHT之抗氧化性…59
圖十一、不同浸泡處理於4℃貯存期間白肉雞腿肉pH值之變化…70
圖十二、不同浸泡處理於4℃貯存期間白肉雞腿肉L值之變化… 71
圖十三、不同浸泡處理於4℃貯存期間白肉雞腿肉a值之變化… 72
圖十四、不同浸泡處理於4℃貯存期間白肉雞腿肉b值之變化… 73
圖十五、不同浸泡處理於4℃貯存期間白肉雞腿肉保水性之變化…75
圖十六、不同浸泡處理於4℃貯存期間白肉雞腿肉VBN值之變化…80
圖十七、不同浸泡處理於4℃貯存期間白肉雞腿肉TBA值之變化…82
表次
表一、食品中微生物腐敗產生之物質與代謝物……………………6
表二、柑橘類果實中之酚類化合物…………………………………19
表三、類黃酮之抗菌、抗真菌及抗病毒之作用……………………34
表四、柑橘類果皮萃取液與葡萄柚籽萃取液之總酚類及總類
黃酮含量………………………………………………………49
表五、柑橘類果皮萃取液與葡萄柚籽萃取液之類黃酮組成………52
表六、柑橘類果皮萃取液與葡萄柚籽萃取液之pH值………………61
表七、柑橘類果皮萃取液與葡萄柚籽萃取液原液之抑菌能力……62
表八、加熱處理對於10%柑橘類果皮萃取液與葡萄柚籽萃取
液抑菌能力之影響……………………………………………64
表九、加熱處理對於3%柑橘類果皮萃取液與葡萄柚籽萃取液
抑菌能力之影響………………………………………………66
表十、不同浸泡處理於4℃貯存期間白肉雞腿肉總生菌數之變化…76
表十一、不同浸泡處理於4℃貯存期間白肉雞腿肉低溫菌數之
變化…………………………………………………………78
表十二、不同浸泡處理對於白肉雞腿肉感官品評之影響…………83
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