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研究生:彭于珍
研究生(外文):Yu-chen Peng
論文名稱:熱逆境對檸檬桉釋出異戊二烯的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of Isoprene Emission of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. on Thermal Stress
指導教授:吳金村
指導教授(外文):King-Tsuen Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:森林學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:熱逆境檸檬桉異戊二烯
外文關鍵詞:thermal stressEucalyptus citriodora Hook.isoprene
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有些植物會釋出大量的生物源揮發性有機化合物(BVOCs),其中以異戊二烯佔最多,又因其具有高反應性,因此極受到重視,大氣中的異戊二烯在紫外線的照射下,會與空氣中的氮氧化物(NOx)反應生成臭氧(O3),O3為二次污染物,會對人體造成呼吸系統上的傷害並且也會傷害植物造成農作物減產,為了降低O3濃度,除了減少NOx的排放外,也要降低植物釋出的異戊二烯量,因此在都市造林、工業區綠化及行道樹的樹種選擇上,最好選擇低或無異戊二烯釋出量的樹種。
本實驗探討溫度及光照強度對異戊二烯釋出量的影響,實驗選取檸檬桉為實驗樹種,利用光合作用系統量測光合作用及氣孔導度值,並以單一葉片圍封法圍封植物,再利用SPME進行吸附採樣,所採樣品以GC/ MS進行分析及鑑定,結果顯示,當溫度固定於35℃,光照強度範圍在200-1000μmol m-2s-1時,異戊二烯釋出量隨光照強度增強而增加;當光照強度固定於1000μmol m-2s-1,溫度範圍介於25-30℃時,異戊二烯釋出量隨溫度增加而增加,溫度範圍介於30-35℃時,異戊二烯釋出量呈現平緩狀態,當溫度達35-40℃,異戊二烯釋出量快速增加並於40℃達最大值,而當溫度超過40℃,異戊二烯釋出量快速降低。
Some plants emit lots of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Isoprene is one of the most abundant among them. Due to its high reactivity, isoprene plays an important role in air quality of our surroudings. Isoprene will rapidly react with NOx and produce ozone while irradiated with ultraviolet light. Ozone can be considered as a the secondary pollution, which harms the respiratory system of human beings and damages plants resulted in decreasing of crop yield. In order to reduce the concentration of ozone, it is necessary to decrease not only the amount of NOx emission, but also the amount of isoprene emission by plants. Therefore, it is felt importance to select some tree species having with its lower or non-emitting isoprene for the plantation of urban forest, industrial park forest and roadside planting.
This study was designed to disscuss independently the influence of light and temperature on isoprene emission from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.. Photosynthetic system was used to measure CO2 fixation and stomatal conductance after enclosuring a single leaf. Solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas-chromatography/ mass spectrometry was used to monitor and identify isoprene emission. As the result, isoprene emission was increased with increasing light intensity from 200 to 1000μmol m-2s-1 as temperature fixed at 35℃,and increased with increasing temperature from 25 to 30℃ as light intensity fixed at 1000μmol m-2s-1. Isoprene emission was held at a constant rate with temperature from 30 to 35℃, and was increased with increasing temperature from 35 to 40℃ and reached its maxima at 40℃. As temperature over 40℃, isoprene emission was dropped rapidly.
目錄(Contents)
頁次
(page)
目錄(Contents)...……….…………………………………………………….…...Ⅰ
表目次(List of Tables)….……………………………………………………..….Ⅲ
圖目次(List of Figures)……………………………………..…………………….Ⅳ
中文摘要(Chinese Abstract)……….……………………………………….…….Ⅵ
英文摘要(English Abstract)………………………………..………………….….Ⅶ
第1章、前言(Introduction).………………………………………………………...1
第2章、文獻回顧(Literatures Review)………………………………….……….3
2.1 異戊二烯(Isoprene)………………………………………..……….……….4
2.1.1植物產生異戊二烯的抗熱逆境功能……………………………………….4
(Plants emitted isoprene to resist thermal stress )
2.1.1.1 溫度對異戊二烯釋出量的影響…………………………...…………...4
(The influence of temperature on isoprene emission)
2.1.1.2 光照強度對異戊二烯釋出量的影響………………………………......6
(The influence of light intensity on isoprene emission)
2.1.1.3 異戊二烯對熱逆境的防禦機制………………………………………..7
(The mechanisms of isoprene to resist the thermal stress)
2.1.2植物生成異戊二烯的生成路徑………………………………………….…9
(Biosynthetic pathway for isoprene production in plants)
2.1.3異戊二烯與NOX反應生成臭氧的機制…………………………………..10
(The mechanisms of isoprene reacted with NOx to produce ozone)
2.1.4異戊二烯的量測方法………………………………………………………11
(The methods of isoprene measurement)
2.1.5樣品收集的方法……………….…………………………………………..13
(The methods of sample collection)
2.2臭氧(Ozone)…………………………………………………………….….15
2.2.1臭氧對人體及植物的影響………………………………………………...15
(The influence of ozone on human beings and plants)
2.2.2臭氧之標準濃度及分佈狀況……………………………………………...16
(Ozone standards and distribution)
2.2.3空氣污染指標(The PSI of air pollution)……………………………….18
2.3固相微萃取(SPME)………………………………………………………..19
2.3.1固相微萃取(SPME)…………………………………………………….19
2.3.1.1固相微萃取的基本原理(The basic principle of SPME.)……………19
2.3.1.2固相微萃取的發展演進(The development of SPME.)…………….20
2.3.1.3 固相微萃取纖維上的塗覆物質………………………………………22
(The coating material on SPME fiber)
2.3.2頂空固相微萃取(Headspace of SPME)……………………….……….23
2.3.2.1 頂空固相微萃取的原理………………………………………………23
(The basic principle of Headspace SPME.)
第3章、材料與方法(Materials and Methods)…………………………………...25
3.1 樹種(Tree species)…………………………………………………………...25
3.2 實驗器材及儀器設備(Experimental Materials and equipment)………….25
3.2.1光合作用測定系統(Photosynthetic system)……………………………25
3.2.2 固相微萃取(SPME)……………………………………………………27
3.2.3 冷凍捕捉系統(Cryo-trap System)…………………………………….28
3.2.4 管柱與氣相層析質譜儀(Column and GC/ MS)………………………29
3.3 藥品(Chemicals)…………………………………………………………..30
3.4 固相微萃取纖維的淨化……………………………………………………...30
(The condition of SPME fiber)
3.5最適採樣條件之探討(The discussion of optimum conditions)………..….30
3.5.1最適溫度之撰定(Optimum Temperature)………………………………30
3.5.2 適光度之撰定(Optimum Light intensity)………………………………30
3.6利用SPME進行採樣並以GC/ MS分析及鑑定……………………………..31
(Sampling by SPME and analyzed and identified by GC/ MS)
3.6.1 採樣(Sampling)…………………………………………………………31
3.6.2 各項實驗採樣條件(Sampling conditions)……………………………..31
3.6.3 GC-MS分析(Analysis of GC/ MS)…………………………………….32
第4章、結果與討論(Results and Disscussion)……………………………………33
4.1 檸檬桉釋出異戊二烯之定性與定量…………………………………………33
(The quantitative and qualitative analysis of isoprene emitted by
Eucalyptus citriodora Hook..)
4.2 採樣條件之探討…………………………………………………...…….……34
(The discussion of sampling conditions)
4.3 光照強度對釋出異戊二烯的影響……………………………………………36
(The influence of light intensity on isoprene emission)
4.4 溫度對釋出異戊二烯的影響…………………………………………………38
(The influence of temperature on isoprene emission)
第5章、結論(Conclusions)………………………………………………………41
第6章、參考文獻(Referances)…………………………………………………..42
附錄(Appendixes)……………………………………………………………………46
附錄1(Appendix 1)………………………………………………………………….46
附錄2(Appendix2)…. ………………………………………………………………47
附錄3(Appendix 3) …….……………………………………………………………48
附錄4(Appendix 4) ……….………………………………………………………....49
附錄5(Appendix 5) ………….……………………………………………………....51
附錄6(Appendix 6) …………….…………………………………………………....52
附錄7(Appendix 7) ……………….………………………………………………....53
附錄8(Appendix 8)…………………………………………………………………..54
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