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研究生:江彥政
研究生(外文):Yen-Cheng Chiang
論文名稱:以景觀生態及景觀生心理探討永續環境之研究
論文名稱(外文):Using Landscape Ecology and Landscape Psychophysiology to Achieve a Sustainable Environment
指導教授:張俊彥
指導教授(外文):Chun-Yen Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:園藝學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:182
中文關鍵詞:景觀生態景觀生心理物種歧異度生理回饋注意力恢復量表
外文關鍵詞:Landscape ecologyLandscape psychophysicalSpecies diversityBiofeedbackPerceived Restorativeness Scale
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本研究之目的乃藉由景觀生態與景觀生心理之理論明瞭自然景觀生態結構與觀賞者生心理反應之關係。以景觀生態學的空間分析理論,探討景觀生態結構中各種指標對物種歧異度以及景觀生態結構中各種指標對觀賞者生心理反應影響。
研究以獅頭山風景區內不同景觀生態結構地區為測試樣點,劃定物種調查區域及範圍。進行物種調查,並於各樣點內拍攝周遭景物之360°動畫,以作為生心理測試時之研究工具。心理反應方面,利用注意力恢復量表(Perceived Restorativeness Scale, PRS)作為心理測量量表,採自填式自我評估問卷測量。生理反應測量方面則包含了四大觀測值:右腦前額葉α波、左腦前額葉α波、前額肌肌電值(EMG)與心跳(HR)。最後利用ArcGIS 8.3版,整合整體的空間資訊,套疊繪製景觀生態結構。並以FRAGSTATS 2.0運算景觀結構之各塊區相關指數,包括面積(AREA)、塊區數目(NP)、平均塊區大小(MPS)、平均形狀指標(MSI)、平均塊區碎形維度(MPFD)、塊區密度(PD)、面積權重之形狀指標平均值(AWMSI)及面積權重之平均塊區碎形維度(AWMPFD)等八項指標,並進行變項之間相關性分析。
研究結果顯示景觀生態結構與物種指標之間相關性,農地結構最為相關,林地次之,人工地盤和水體最少。另外,景觀生態結構與生心理反應相關性,影響生理反應(腦波)最為強烈者,為林地結構。影響生理反應(心跳)最為強烈者,為人工地盤結構。影響心理反應(PRS)最為強烈者,為人工地盤結構。而景觀生態結構與生理反應(肌電值)皆無達顯著水準。並藉由結果之指出進一步地探討人與其他物種永續共存之景觀生態環境。
The purpose of this study is to exploring a sustainable environment, which could both benefits wildlife and humankind. As a cross-discipline study, the theories of landscape ecology and the landscape psychophysiology were adopted to depict the relationship between landscape ecological structure and respondents’ psychological and physical responses. The theory of landscape ecological structure analysis were applies to test the wild life species diversity in different landscape settings and respondents’ attention level and their physiological responses.
The 12 investigation sites were chosen from the Lion''''s Head Mountain Scenery Area, which contains various kinds of landscape ecological structures. By taken 360 circular videos for each site to testing respondents’ attention restoration effect and their physical responses.
The Perceived Restorativeness Scales (PRS) were applied as the index of respondents’ psychological responses. The physical response includes the right and left hemisphere brain wave (EEG), and the Electromyography (EMG) value of respondents’ forehead muscle.
The ArcGIS8.3 were used to digitize the landscape ecological structure, following with the indices calculation with the FRAGSTATS for Arc View. Which includes the Area (AREA), Number of Patches (NP), Mean Patch Size (MPS), Mean Size Index (MSI), Mean Patch Fragmentation Dimension (MPFD), Patch Density (PD), Area-Weighted Mean Size Index (AWMSI), and Area-Weighted Mean Patch Fragmentation Dimension (AWMPFD). The relationships among the landscape ecological structure indices, bird’s ecological indices, and the respondents’ responses indices were tested. Respondents’ feel of each video were recorded with their oral statement for a qualitative paradigm analysis.
The result shows the relationship between landscape ecological structures. The farms has most significant relation effects followed by woodland, build areas, and water body respectively. Furthermore, woods have most significant effects on the EEG responses, build area have significant effect on HR and PRS. With this exploratory study, the different benefit effects between wildlife species and humankind were compared in regard to the landscape ecological structures.
目 錄
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機……………………………………………………………………………..1-1
第二節 研究目的……………………………………………………………………………..1-3
第三節 研究假設……. …………………………………………………………..………..…1-3
第四節 研究限制 1-3
第五節 研究重要性 1-4
第二章 文獻回顧
第一節 景觀生態結構相關理論 2-1
第二節 鳥類多樣性相關理論 2-5
第三節 景觀生心理相關理論 2-9
第三章 研究方法
第一節 研究變項與架構 3-1
第二節 研究假設 3-4
第三節 研究設計與操作 3-8
第四節 資料收集與分析方法 3-19
第四章 研究結果與分析
第一節 研究結果 4-1
第二節 結果統計分析 4-12
第五章 結論與建議
第一節 結果與討論 5-1
第二節 實證研究建議 5-7
第三節 後續研究建議 5-8
參考文獻
附錄一 景觀生態結構指數
附錄二 研究地點相關資料
附錄三 各點可視域範圍
附錄四 獅頭山風景區鳥類物種資源調查紀錄表
附錄五 各樣點鳥類調查紀錄
附錄六 鳥類資料彙整
附錄七 景觀生態結構數化結果
圖目錄
圖1-1 研究背景圖 1-2
圖3-1 研究概念圖 3-1
圖3-2 研究架構圖 3-3
圖3-3 基地內開發度高延至低之環境示意圖 3-8
圖3-4 研究調查樣點圖 3-9
圖3-5 50公尺半徑樣圖 3-10
圖3-6 250公尺半徑樣圖 3-10
圖3-7 500公尺半徑樣圖 3-11
圖3-8 視域分析圖 3-12
圖3-9 生心理實驗室 3-13
圖3-10 景觀型態與生心理反應測試程序圖 3-14
圖3-11 模擬肌電測試黏貼位置說明圖 3-15
圖3-12 腦波黏貼位置與模擬腦波測試黏貼位置說明圖 3-16
圖3-13 腦波電極片黏貼位置圖二 3-16
圖3-14 心跳紅外線偵測器 3-16
圖3-15 質性資料編碼流程圖 3-20
圖4-1 B3地點之農田趨近圓形塊區形狀 4-12
圖4-2 C3地點之農田不規則塊區形狀 4-12
圖4-3 C3和D2半徑50公尺林地塊區分佈圖 4-13
圖4-4 D1半徑50公尺林地塊區分佈圖 4-13
圖4-5 B1航照圖和現場環境照片 4-14
圖4-6 B3大面積栽培作物之農地圖 4-16
圖4-7 B1和B2航照圖 4-16
圖4-8 各類地點人工地盤與鳥類種類數比較圖 4-17
圖4-9 塊區形狀圖 4-18
圖4-10 B1航照圖及現地照片 4-19
圖4-11 B3航照圖及現地照片 4-19
圖4-12 D3航照圖及現地照片 4-20
圖4-13 C2航照圖及現地照片 4-20
圖4-14 A3航照圖及現地照片 4-21
圖4-15 D1航照圖及現地照片 4-21
圖4-16 D2航照圖及現地照片 4-22
圖4-17 B2開闊農田景觀 4-23
圖4-18 B3開闊農田景觀 4-23
圖4-19 B1雜亂農田景觀 4-24
圖4-20 A2密集社區景觀 4-25
圖4-21 A3密集社區景觀 4-25
圖4-22 D2視覺封閉林地景觀 4-26
圖5-1 鳥類岐異度最高值地點分佈圖 5-2
圖5-2 A3航照圖及現地照片 5-3
圖5-3 受測者最喜好地點分佈圖 5-5
附圖3-1 Contour XLRic雷射測距槍 附錄三-1
附圖3-2 實際測距樣圖 附錄三-1
附圖3-3 A1可視域範圍圖 附錄三-2
附圖3-4 A2可視域範圍圖 附錄三-2
附圖3-5 A3可視域範圍圖 附錄三-3
附圖3-6 B1可視域範圍圖 附錄三-3
附圖3-7 B2可視域範圍圖 附錄三-4
附圖3-8 B3可視域範圍圖 附錄三-4
附圖3-9 C1可視域範圍圖 附錄三-5
附圖3-10 C2可視域範圍圖 附錄三-5
附圖3-11 C3可視域範圍圖 附錄三-6
附圖3-12 D1可視域範圍圖 附錄三-6
附圖3-13 D2可視域範圍圖 附錄三-7
附圖3-14 D3可視域範圍圖 附錄三-7
附圖7-1 A1樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-1
附圖7-2 A2樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-1
附圖7-3 A3樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-2
附圖7-4 B1樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-2
附圖7-5 B2樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-3
附圖7-6 B3樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-3
附圖7-7 C1樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-4
附圖7-8 C2樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-4
附圖7-9 C3樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-5
附圖7-10 D1樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-5
附圖7-11 D2樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-6
附圖7-12 D3樣點50公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-6
附圖7-13 A1樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-7
附圖7-14 A2樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-7
附圖7-15 A3樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-8
附圖7-16 B1樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-8
附圖7-17 B2樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-9
附圖7-18 B3樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-9
附圖7-19 C1樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-10
附圖7-20 C2樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-10
附圖7-21 C3樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-11
附圖7-22 D1樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-11
附圖7-23 D2樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-12
附圖7-24 D3樣點250公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-12
附圖7-25 A1樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-13
附圖7-26 A2樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-13
附圖7-27 A3樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-14
附圖7-28 B1樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-14
附圖7-29 B2樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-15
附圖7-30 B3樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-15
附圖7-31 C1樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-16
附圖7-32 C2樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-16
附圖7-33 C3樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-17
附圖7-34 D1樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-17
附圖7-35 D2樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-18
附圖7-36 D3樣點500公尺景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-18
附圖7-37 A1樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-19
附圖7-38 A2樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-19
附圖7-39 A3樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-20
附圖7-40 B1樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-20
附圖7-41 B2樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-21
附圖7-42 B3樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-21
附圖7-43 C1樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-22
附圖7-44 C2樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-22
附圖7-45 C3樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-23
附圖7-46 D1樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-23
附圖7-47 D2樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-24
附圖7-48 D3樣點視域範圍內景觀生態結構圖 附錄七-24
表目錄
表2-1 景觀生態分類相關研究及研究對象表 2-3
表2-2 鳥類多樣性指標、定義、內容表 2-7
表2-3 森林鳥類之最小需求面積及最大門檻距離表 2-7
表2-4 鳥類物種與尺度分類相關研究表 2-8
表2-5 注意力恢復量表問項表 2-11
表2-6 腦波頻率意義表 2-14
表2-7 自然景觀環境對於心理及生理反應之相關研究表 2-16
表3-1 第一階段景觀生態結構指數與物種分佈研究變項表 3-2
表3-2 第二階段景觀生態結構指數與生心理反應研究變項表 3-2
表3-3 假設一景觀生態結構指數與物種分佈研究模式關係表 3-4
表3-4 假設二景觀生態結構指數與生心理反應研究模式關係表 3-6
表3-5 土地開發程度等級說明表 3-9
表3-6 注意力恢復量表問項表 3-18
表4-1 半徑50公尺景觀生態結構比例表 4-1
表4-2 半徑250公尺景觀生態結構比例表 4-1
表4-3 半徑500公尺景觀生態結構比例表 4-2
表4-4 鳥類食性分類表 4-3
表4-5 研究基地各類食性鳥類出現之頻率表 4-4
表4-6 鳥類調查之各種指標值 4-8
表4-7 各點視域範圍內之景觀生態結構比例表 4-8
表4-8 受測者基本資料(性別)次數分配表 4-9
表4-9 受測者科系分配表 4-9
表4-10 受測者質性資料編碼統計表 4-10
表4-11 景觀生態結構指數與鳥類物種指標相關綜合分析表 4-15
表4-12 景觀生態結構指數與生心理反應指標相關綜合分析表 4-22
表4-13 景觀生態結構50、250、500公尺範圍與視域範圍相關性比較表 4-29
表4-14 50公尺環框中鳥類生態性指標與觀賞者生心理反應相關性比較表 4-33
表4-15 250公尺環框中鳥類生態性指標與觀賞者生心理反應相關性比較表 4-34
表4-16 500公尺環框中鳥類生態性指標與觀賞者生心理反應相關性比較表 4-35
表5-1 規劃設計建議綜合表 5-7
附表1-1 景觀生態結構指標表 附錄一-1
附表3-1 各點可視域範圍距離表 附錄三-8
附表7-1 50公尺為半徑範圍之農地結構指數值 附錄七-25
附表7-2 50公尺為半徑範圍之人工地盤地結構指數值 附錄七-25
附表7-3 50公尺為半徑範圍之水體結構指數值 附錄七-26
附表7-4 50公尺為半徑範圍之林地地結構指數值 附錄七-26
附表7-5 250公尺為半徑範圍之農地結構指數值 附錄七-27
附表7-6 250公尺為半徑範圍之人工地盤地結構指數值 附錄七-27
附表7-7 250公尺為半徑範圍之水體結構指數值 附錄七-28
附表7-8 250公尺為半徑範圍之林地地結構指數值 附錄七-28
附表7-9 500公尺為半徑範圍之農地結構指數值 附錄七-29
附表7-10 500公尺為半徑範圍之人工地盤地結構指數值 附錄七-29
附表7-11 500公尺為半徑範圍之水體結構指數值 附錄七-30
附表7-12 500公尺為半徑範圍之林地地結構指數值 附錄七-30
附表7-13 視域範圍之農地結構指數值 附錄七-31
附表7-14 視域範圍之人工地盤地結構指數值 附錄七-31
附表7-15 視域範圍之水體結構指數值 附錄七-32
附表7-16 視域範圍之林地地結構指數值 附錄七-32
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