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研究生:李俊賢
研究生(外文):Jiunn-Shyan Lee
論文名稱:非擬真成像與材質合成之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Art-Based Rendering and Example-Based Texture Synthesis
指導教授:王宗銘王宗銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Ming Wang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:資訊科學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:非擬真成像材質合成電腦圖學
外文關鍵詞:Non-Photorealistic RenderingTexture SynthesisComputer Graphics
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  • 被引用被引用:1
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  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:30
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
非擬真成像演算法(Non-Photorealistic Rendering)為近來時興之電腦圖學研究領域,其優點為可省略瑣碎細節、誇張的強調重點、吸引觀察者之目光、傳達特定之意念等。本篇論文提出三個創新的非擬真成像演算法。首先,我們提出新的水墨擴散影像合成演算法(Ink Diffusion Synthesis Algorithm)。此演算法以物理學之學理為基礎,推導提出一個新的水墨擴散模型。此模型考量水、墨、紙張等之交互作用與纖維的吸收特性,忠實有效的模擬出水分子承載碳粒子之流動變化情形。透過此模型之數學計算,可模擬出東方傳統書法撰寫與水墨繪畫之擴散、渲染現象。我們實作出「書法練習系統」與「輪廓線白描畫法」兩個互動性系統,以便從教育、娛樂與便利性之層面著眼,來提高學生在書法練習與水墨繪畫之學習興趣。
其次,我們提出印象畫風線積分迴旋演算法(Impressionist Line Integral Convolution Algorithm),來產生擬似梵谷畫作之印象畫風圖像。我們重新詮釋傳統在視覺化向量場所使用的線積分迴旋方法。我們提出色彩忠實技巧(Color Fidelity Technique),考慮畫家作畫時對溫度、色彩技術之運用習慣,來強化觀察者對圖像內物體之深度認知。我們提出資訊維持技巧(Information Preservation Technique),藉以控制線積分迴旋計算,有效的保留圖像之細節資訊。最後,我們將演算法延伸至三度空間,來建構具藝術風格之虛擬環境。我們提出多層解析貼圖材質產生技巧(Mip-map Texture Generation Technique),能在更新畫面時,強調筆觸方向的同時,有效的維持畫刷筆觸大小的一致性。我們利用所提之技術,發展成影像濾鏡來模擬梵谷之印象畫風,並實現具有高互動即時性之虛擬場景,讓使用者猶如身入梵谷之畫境。
最後,我們提出樣本範例材質合成演算法(Example-Based Texture Synthesis Algorithm)。此演算法可以根據輸入的來源材質圖像,合成產生具有任意解析度大小、與來源材質間具有相同紋理特徵的新圖像。我們採用區塊為基礎(Patch-Based)的合成方法,利用kd-tree多維度最接近鄰居搜尋技術,來尋求最佳匹配區塊。我們結合動態規劃(dynamic programming)與羽化融合(feathering)的新技術,來處理邊界重疊,使接縫部份有更佳的連貫性與平滑性。上述技巧使的我們的演算法可以自動填補摘除前景物體時所遺留下之空隙,可移除被前景物體遮掩、陽光投射造成之高亮點與陰影等瑕疵,達成被限制性(constrained)材質合成。我們也提出一個新的非疊代性技巧(Non-iterative Technique),可以依據來源與目標影像所定訂之對應關係,將來源區塊特徵轉移貼附至目標影像,達成材質轉移(Texture Transfer)。最後,我們提出一個新的材質重建技巧(Texture Reconstruction Technique),利用照片平面重建技術,解決因為攝影鏡頭傾斜與透視投影所造成之投影位移,順利達成投影位移(displacement)材質合成。此技巧具有實作容易、操作簡便、效果良好之優點。就我們所知,此為我們首創,目前並無其他相關成功的案例。
本篇論文提出三個創新成圖演算法:水墨擴散影像合成演算法、印象畫風線積分迴旋演算法、樣本範例材質合成演算法。我們實現這些演算法並發展相對的應用系統。蒐集的實驗結果顯示這三個演算法都能有效的解決相關問題,擴展非擬真成像演算法之應用範疇。

This dissertation introduces new algorithms for computer-generated non-photorealistic images that look like hand-made paintings. Two art-based rendering algorithms are developed: Ink Diffusion Synthesis and Impressionist Line Integral Convolution. Then, we explore a patch-based sampling algorithm for texture synthesis and transfer denoted as Example-Based Texture Synthesis.
Calligraphy has blossomed through a long history in the Orient and is appreciated by many people. In this thesis, we first present an interactive system capable of synthesizing realistic ink diffusion for calligraphic writing education. The system provides two frames for potential users. The first frame presents the outline of a Chinese character that is selected by the user, and a menu where a user can specify parameters such as ink density and paper styles. Users imitate the action of calligraphic writing through mouse movements along the skeleton of the character. Once this has been completed, an ink diffusion effect based on the user’s mouse movement is then synthesized and demonstrated in the second frame. We present a physically-based model combined with fibrous paper structures to synthesize the ink diffusion effect. The experiment results show that this system adequately enlightens and entertains both skillful students and naive novices. In conclusion, by using our system users, especially new beginners, benefit from interactively practicing calligraphy as often as they want without feeling bored.
Next, we discuss the line integral convolution (LIC) method, which was originally developed for imaging vector field in scientific visualization and has the potential to produce images with directional characteristics. In this study, we present four techniques to explore LIC in generating images in the style of the Impressionists. In particular, we develop an Impressionist Line Integral Convolution algorithm (ILIC) to generate images with Impressionist styles. This algorithm takes advantage of directional information provided by a photograph image, incorporates a shading technique to blend cool and warm colors into the image, and applies the revised LIC method to imitate paintings in the Impressionist style. Furthermore, we propose the color fidelity technique, which takes advantages of the cool-to-warm scheme to imitate conventional artistic painting and enhance the visual depth perception. We also present an information preservation technique, which quantifies image details to control the convolution length, thus preserving subtle information during the convolution process. Finally, we demonstrate a top-down sampling technique where a series of artistic mip-maps are generated to construct aesthetic virtual environments. These maps provide constant strokes of directional cues, achieving frame-to-frame coherence in an interactive walkthrough system. Both silhouette drawing and tour into the picture (TIP) approach are employed to enhance the user’s immersion in a virtual world. The experimental results demonstrate the merits of our techniques in generating images in the Impressionist style and constructing an interactive walkthrough system that provides an immersion experience rendered in painting styles.
Last, texture synthesis has been widely studied in recent years and patch-based sampling has proven superior in synthesis quality and computation time. However, it suffers from the problem of non-parallel textures usually captured by tilted camera projection. Here we propose a novel texture synthesis framework to tackle the problem of displacement textures. Initially, we adopt a patch-based sampling algorithm by overlapping texture patches to synthesize textures of arbitrary size with similar appearance. Most importantly, we present a hybrid method of dynamic programming and feathering technique to make possible a consistent transition between two stitched boundaries. Secondly, we develop a synthesis system with no user intervention during the synthesis process. Our system is amenable to synthesizing tiling textures as well as constrained textures. Thirdly, a novel framework for displacement texture synthesis is proposed. Given a tilted source, our algorithm efficiently renders an extended texture with the same slant as the input sample. In addition, our method can easily rectify a displacement image to a vertical image, and vice versa. Experimental results show that the proposed framework succeeds in synthesizing frontal non-parallel textures. Finally, we propose a novel non-iterative transfer algorithm. Given a source and a target, our algorithm efficiently renders the target image by transferring matched source patches without incurring iteration. The method takes into account two principles of target fidelity and neighbor coherence. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach presents a more visually plausible appearance and runs faster than the iterative counterpart.

誌 謝 ……………………………………………………………………… i
摘 要 ……………………………………………………………………… ii
Abstract …………………………………………………………………… iv
Contents …………………………………………………………………… vii
List of Figures ………………………………………………………… ix
List of Tables …………………………………………………………… xi
1 Introduction …………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Motivation ………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Survey of Non-Phototrealistic Rendering ………………… 4
1.3 Overview of the Thesis ………………………………………… 11
2 Ink Diffusion Synthesis ……………………………………………… 13
2.1 Introduction and Related Work ………………………………… 13
2.1.1 Introduction ………………………………………………… 13
2.1.2 Related Work ………………………………………………… 14
2.2 Modeling and Rendering Algorithms …………………………… 16
2.2.1 Modeling the Parametric Stroke ………………………… 16
2.2.2 Modeling the "Xuan" Paper ………………………………… 21
2.2.3 Rendering the Ink Diffusion ……………………………… 22
2.2.4 A Calligraphic Learning System ………………………… 26
2.2.5 Application to Silhouette Rendering …………………… 28
2.3 Results ……………………………………………………………… 32
2.4 Summary ……………………………………………………………… 38
3 Impressionist Line Integral Convolution ………………………… 40
3.1 Introduction and Related Work ………………………………… 40
3.1.1 Introduction ………………………………………………… 40
3.1.2 Related Work ………………………………………………… 44
3.2 ILIC Algorithms …………………………………………………… 46
3.2.1 The Conventional LIC Method ……………………………… 46
3.2.2 The Impressionist LIC ……………………………………… 49
3.2.3 A Technique for Color Fidelity ………………………… 61
3.2.4 A Technique for Information Preservation …………… 62
3.3 Aesthetic Virtual Environment ………………………………… 67
3.3.1 System Architecture ………………………………………… 68
3.3.2 Image Space Rendering ……………………………………… 69
3.3.3 Object Space Rendering …………………………………… 72
3.4 Performance Evaluation ………………………………………… 75
3.5 Summary ……………………………………………………………… 81
4 Example-Based Texture Synthesis …………………………………… 83
4.1 Introduction and Related Work ………………………………… 83
4.1.1 Introduction ………………………………………………… 83
4.1.2 Related Work ………………………………………………… 86
4.2 Texture Synthesis ………………………………………………… 88
4.2.1 Patch-Based Synthesis ……………………………………… 88
4.2.2 Synthesizing The Tiling Texture ………………………… 95
4.2.3 Synthesizing The Constrained Texture ………………… 96
4.3 Synthesizing The Displacement Texture ……………………… 100
4.3.1 The Problem …………………………………………………… 100
4.3.2 The Algorithm ………………………………………………… 101
4.3.3 Synthesis Framework ………………………………………… 105
4.3.4 Quality Enhancement ………………………………………… 108
4.3.5 Operating Interface ………………………………………… 109
4.3.6 Results of Displacement Texture ………………………… 111
4.4 Texture Transfer ………………………………………………… 118
4.4.1 Non-Iterative Transfer …………………………………… 118
4.4.2 User-Controlled Transfer ………………………………… 121
4.5 Result Analysis …………………………………………………… 124
4.6 Summary ……………………………………………………………… 127
5 Conclusions and Future Work ………………………………………… 130
5.1 Conclusions ………………………………………………………… 130
5.2 Future Work ………………………………………………………… 133
Bibliography ……………………………………………………………… 136
Index ………………………………………………………………………… 143

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