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研究生:朱中華
研究生(外文):Chung-Hua Chu
論文名稱:整合UMTS及802.11無線網路中交握之安全機置
論文名稱(外文):A Secure handoff Scheme for Integration of UMTS and 802.11 WLANs
指導教授:歐陽彥杰
指導教授(外文):Yen-Chieh Ouyang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:內容交換安全一次密鑰
外文關鍵詞:context transfersecurityone time password
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本論文主要提出一個整合UMTS及802.11WLAN中加入安全內容交換機制。在整合UMTS及802.11WLAN中存在許多安全上的問題,我們將在整合架構中加入所提出的安全認證機制。當行動裝置由UMTS漫遊到WLAN時,提供了新的方法來得到通訊金鑰,稱為Dynamic Key Exchange Protocol,利用它提供金鑰給之後的設定的任一個對稱性加密演算法來使用,並且解決在無線區域路中安全標準上的問題及克服使用802.1X可能會遇到的問題;在這個協定需要三個階段來完成,分別是”Access Point Register Phase”, “Key Generate Phase”, “Refresh Password Phase”,在每個階段均受到非對稱性加密的保護。當行動裝置由WLAN漫遊到UMTS時,我們使用UMTS的認證方式,以達成使用者對系統網路的認證。在未來的無線通訊環境中將會有許多的整合3G UMTS及802.11 WLAN,但至今尚在這兩個環境交換時仍未有一非常安全的認證機置,我們提出的安全交握認證機置可以建立起高可信度及相互認證,可避免掉無線環境下可能發生的攻擊事件。
In this paper, we propose a secure handoff scheme for the integration of UMTS and 802.11 WLAN networks. The handoff between 802.11 WLAN and the UMTS has some drawbacks and could be hijacked through middle of a communication session. An architecture built for a secure handoff scheme is proposed to fix that problem. The Dynamic Key Exchange Protocol (DKEP) is used to protect users during a UMTS handover to a 802.11 WLAN environment. The mobile station (MS) and access point (AP) compute their session key individually. The protocol includes three phases and all the steps of the phases are protected by public-key encryption. Therefore no information can be hijacked between MS and AP. From the security analysis, we know that the handoff between WLAN and UMTS is guaranteed in various aspects. For example, user identity and new registration can be protected, thus avoiding denial of service, key reuse, and so on.
1 Introduction
1.1 occasion....………………………………………………...........….1
1.2 The introduction to current wireless security…………………...…2
1.3 Contributions ...….………………………………………………..4
1.4 Organization of this thesis...……………………………………….4
2 UMTS Network and Security
2.1 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)………………………..6
2.2 UMTS……………………………………………..……………....10
2.2.1 Network Interworking……………………...………………10
2.2.2 Internet (IP) Interworking…………………...……………..10
2.2.3 Network Access Control Functions………………….…….10
2.2.3.1 Registration Function.…………………………...11
2.2.3.2 Authentication and Authorisation Function.…….12
2.2.3.3 Admission Control Function……………….……12
2.2.3.4 Message Screening Function………..…………..12
2.2.3.5 Relay Function………………….………………12
2.2.3.6 Routing Function.………………………………13
2.2.3.7 Address Translation and Mapping Function……13
2.2.3.8 Encapsulation Function…………………………14
2.2.3.9 Tunnelling Function…………………………….14
2.2.3.10 Compression Function………………..……….14
2.2.3.11 Ciphering Function…………………...……….14
2.2.3.12 Domain Name Server Function……...……….15
2.3 UMTS Core Network Nodes……………………………….…...15
2.3.1 UMTS Packet Domain PLMN Backbone Networks…....17
2.3.2 HLR …………………………………..…………….…..18
2.3.3 SMS GMSC and SMS IWMSC………………………..18
2.3.4 Mobile Stations (A/Gb mode)……...................………..18
2.4 AES (Advanced Encryption standard)………………………...18
2.5 3G security…………………………………….………………21
2.5.1 Introduction of UMTS security………….………….…21
2.5.2 Authentication and key agreement…………..…...……25
3 Security Protocol Engineering and Analysis Resource Version II
3.1 Introduction………………………………………………..…31
3.2 GYPSIE environment………………………….........…………….32
3.3 GYNGER…………………………………....……………………32
3.4 Visual GNY environment…………………...……………………33
3.5 Simulation result…………………...…………………….………35
4 A Handoff Authentication Scheme for Integration of UMTS and 802.11 WLANs
4.1 Background …………………………………………….…….….39
4.2 Architecture for integration of 802.11 WLAN and the UMTS….40
4.3 Handoff from UMTS to WLAN and dynamic
key exchange protocol………………………….….……………43
4.3.1 Wireless Security Architecture.………………………….43
4.3.2 Initialization Phase ……………………………………...45
4.3.3 Key exchange phase …………………………….……...47
4.3.4 Refresh password phase………………………………...49
4.3.5 Handoff using dynamic key exchange protocol secure
handoff……………………………………………..........50
4.3.6 Security analysis of using Dynamic key exchange
protocol…………………………………………….…....52
4.4 Security handoff from WLAN to UMTS and UMTS
security……………………………………………..……54
4.4.1 Security procedure for handoff from WLAN to
UMTS…………………………………………….56
4.4.2Security analysis for the handoff from WLAN to
UMTS……………………………………….…...58
5 Conclusions
5.1 Conclusions………………………………………….....60
5.2 Some other issues……………………………………....60
5.3 Future works……………………………………………61
Reference………………………………………………………..62
[1] A. Mishra and W. A. Arbaugh, “An Initial Security Analysis of the IEEE 802.1X Standard,” Department of Computer Science University of Maryland, Feb 6, 2002, CS-TR-43228.
[2] B. Aboba, “PPP EAP-TLS Authentication Protocol,” IEFT RFC 2716.
[3] B. Schneier, “Applied Cryptography ,” . 1996.
[4] C. Rigney, “Remote authentication dial In MS Service (RADIUS),” IEFT RFC 2865.
[5] G. Meredith, “Securing The Wireless LAN,” CISCO SYSTEMS MSS MAGAZINE, Third Quarter 2001.
[6] K. Kaukonen and R. Thayer, “A Stream Cipher Encryption Algorithm Arcfour,” http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/draft-kaukonen-cipher-arcfour-03.txt.
[7] N. Borison,I. Goldberg and D. Wagner, “Intercepting Mobile Communications:The Insecurity of 802.11,” http://www.isaac.cs.berkeley.edu/isaac/wep-draft.pdf.
[8] N. Haller and C. Metz, “A One-time password System,” IETF RFC 1938. Sponsor, “IEEE standard for Local and metropolitan are networks-Port-Based Network Access Control,” June 14, 2001, IEEE Std 802.1X-2001.
[9] S. Weatherspoon, “Overview of 802.11b Security,” Network Communications Group, Intel Corporation, http://www.intel.com/technology/itj/q22000/article/art_5.htm.
[10] Colin Boyd and Anish Mathuria, “Key Establishment Protocols for Secure Mobile Communications : A Selective Survey, ” ACISP’98, Page(s). 344-355.
[11] W. Diffie and M. Hellman, “New directions in cryptography,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol.22, pp644-654, 1976.
[12] 3GPP TS 33.102, “3G Security,Security architecture (Release 5)”, June 2003.
[13] 3GPP TS 23.060, “3GPP General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Service Description, Stage 2 (Release 6) ”, June 2003.
[14] M. Jaseemuddin, “An architecture for integrating UMTS and 802.11 WLAN networks”, IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication, 2003. (ISCC 2003). Proceedings. Eighth IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 716 -723, June 30 - July 3 2003.
[15] M. Buddhikot, G. Chandranmenon, S. Han, Y.W. Lee, S. Miller, L. Salgarelli, “Integration of 802.11 and third-generation wireless data networks”, IEEE INFOCOM 2003. Twenty-Second Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Volume: 1 , pp. 503 -512, March 30 — April 3 2003.
[16] G. Dommety et al, “Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6”, Internet Draft, draft-ietf-mobileip-fast-mipv6-02.txt, July 2001.
[17] Y. C. Ouyang , R. L. Chang and J. H. Chiu, “A New Security Key Exchange Channel for 802.11 WLANs”, IEEE Security Technology, 2003, Carnahan Conference, October 14 — 16, 2003.
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