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研究生:蘇進豪
研究生(外文):Chin-Hao Su
論文名稱:以專利指標衡量美國電子商務商業方法之創新
論文名稱(外文):Measuring Innovation with Patent Indicators:The Case of E-commerce Business Methods in U.S.
指導教授:佘日新佘日新引用關係
指導教授(外文):Peter J. Sher
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:電子商務研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:一般商業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:電子商務專利商業方法創新
外文關鍵詞:E-CommercePatentBusiness MethodsInnovation
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:208
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
自從美國專利商標局在1996年公佈「電腦相關發明審查基準」以及美國聯邦巡迴上訴法院(CAFC)在State Street Bank v. Signature 及AT&T v. Excel Communications 兩案之後,明白宣示商業方法亦為美國專利法所保護的法定標的。美國專利商標局亦在2000年公佈的商業方法專利白皮書中以「自動化財務或管理資料處理方法」做為商業方法之正式名稱,並將其歸類在UPC 705。 不久之後,商業方法專利的申請大幅增加,亦成為電子商務相關廠商積極申請專利佈局以利於切入虛擬市場的策略工具之一。
本研究則參考 CHI Research 所建立的技術指標,針對美國有申請電子商務商業方法的公司進行電子商務商業方法之創新探討,從中瞭解相關公司在整個電子商務商業方法的創新程度與發展現況。 而本研究的研究方法則為透過專利分析工具檢索出美國電子商務相關商業方法的專利,並將該專利資料套入CHI的技術指標進行統計。 透過這些專利指標的結果來分析目前電子商務商業方法的創新情形,並對IBM、USA Technologies、VeriFone、InterTrust、HP、Microsoft、Hitachi、Amazon和AT&T等九家廠商進行相互比較,試圖分析此九家廠商在電子商務商業方法的專利現況、創新速度、專利衝擊力以及基礎研究能力。
研究的結果顯示在創新速度上Hitachi只有2.9年,整個平均為4.54年,比起其他廠商創新速度是最快的。 而IBM在專利數目以及專利衝擊力有良好的表現,其專利衝擊力高達1.67,顯示其被平均引證的次數達1.67次,整體而言是頗具影響力的一家公司。 而在基礎研究能力則以InterTrust為最傑出,其所引證的SCI科學期刊高達117篇,被引用最多次的期刊為"Communication of the ACM"有47次。 顯示其在快速變化的電子商務環境,其基礎研究的能力亦沒有被公司忽視。

Since the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) made the announcement of examination guidelines for computer-related inventions in 1996 and the decisions of U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC) in the case of State Street Bank v. Signature and AT&T v. Excel Communications, it has been clearly stated that the inventions of the business methods are treated like any other process invention and that the subject matter is patentable. USPTO White paper, published in 2000, uses “AUTOMATED FINANCIAL OR MANAGEMENT DATA PROCESSING METHODS" as the name of business methods and classifies it into UPC 705. In the future, patent applications will increase and become the strategic tools of E-Commerce business methods for the E-Commerce related companies in virtual markets.
This study refers to the patent indicators established by CHI Research, and focuses on evaluating innovation of E-Commerce business methods in EC companies. This thesis adopts a patent analysis to extract the patent data from USPTO, and uses those patent materials to calculate patent indicators. Those indicators are further used to analyze innovative development of E-Commerce and compared to the nine major E-Commerce companies, including IBM、USA Technologies、VeriFone、InterTrust、HP、Microsoft、Hitachi、Amazon and AT&T, in an attempt to analyze the situation of the patent, the speed of innovation, the patent impact and the ability of basic research.
The findings of the research show that Hitachi is only 2.9 years faster than others in the speed of innovation while the average is 4.54 years. Also, IBM has an outstanding number of patents and patent impact, and its CII is 1.67, implying the average count of citation is 1.67. Among the others, it is a very affective company. In terms of basic research ability, the most outstanding company is InterTrust as it has been citied in a total of 117 SCI journals and 47 times by “Communication of the ACM” This means that the research ability still cannot be ignored in such a rapid-changing E-commerce environment.

謝誌 i 
摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURES vii
LIST OF TABLES viii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Research Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 2
1.3 Research Scope and Limitation 3
1.3.1 The searching strategies 3
1.3.2 The selection of research focus 3
1.3.3 The database of USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) 4
1.4 Research Organization 4
1.5 Research Process 5
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 The Evolution of Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) 6
2.1.1 E-Commerce definition 6
2.2 The Evolution of Business Method and E-Commerce 8
2.2.1 The evolution of E-Commerce business method patent 8
2.2.2 The U.S Patent Class 705 8
2.3 Patent and Innovation 9
2.3.1 Patent 9
2.3.2 Meaning of innovation 10
2.4 Patent Indicators 11
2.4.1 OECD: The measure indicators of innovation 11
2.4.2 The Technology Indicators of CHI Research 20
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT 28
3.1 Research Objects and Scope 28
3.1.1 Research main body — An analysis of innovation of E-Commerce business method company 28
3.2 The framework of analysis 30
3.3 Research Methodology 31
3.3.1. Number of Patent (NoP) 32
3.3.2. Cites Per Patent (CPP) 33
3.3.3. Current Impact Index (CII) 33
3.3.4. Technology strength (TS) 37
3.3.5 Technology cycle time (TCT) 38
3.3.6 Science Linkage (SL) 39
3.3.7 Science strength (SS) 40
3.4 Data Processing 40
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH DESIGN 42
4.1 Patent Analysis for E-Commerce Business Method Patents 42
4.1.1 Patent extracting strategy 43
4.2 The Innovation Indicators for the Research Objects 46
4.2.1 Patent activities (Number of Patents) 46
4.2.1.1 Number of Patents 47
4.2.1.2 IPC competitive analysis 50
4.2.1.3 UPC competitive analysis 53
4.2.2 Cites Per Patent (CPP) 56
4.2.3 Current Impact Index (CII) 58
4.2.4 Technology Strength (TS) 58
4.2.5 Technology Cycle Time (TCT) 60
4.2.6 Science Linkage (SL) 63
4.2.7 Science Strength (SS) 65
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIOINS AND SUGGESTIONS 67
5.1 Conclusions 67
5.2 Suggestions 74
REFERENCES 76
APPENDIX A: UPC 705 Classification 81
APPENDIX B: US to IPC7 Concordance for Class 705 Data Processing 85
APPENDIX C: The front page of patent specification 87
APPENDIX D: Company Name Unification 88
APPENDIX E: All research companies 89

一、中文部分(按姓名筆畫排序)
[1]何昱廷 ,「商業模式專利對電子商務發展之影響」,
資策會科法中心。
[2]麥克.戴爾, 譯者:謝綺蓉 , (1999) DELL的秘密-戴
電腦總裁現身說法,大塊文化出版。
[3]劉尚志、陳佳麟 (2001),「電子商務與電腦軟體之專利保護」,翰蘆圖書出版社。
二、英文部分 (按照字母排序)
[1] A USPTO WHITE PAPER, (2002), Automated Financial or Management Data Processing Methods (Business Methods)
[2] Betz, F., (1987) Managing Technology — Competing through New Ventures, Innovation, and Corporate Research, Prentice-Hall, pp.8,
[3] Chacke, G.K., (1988), Technology Management—Application to Corporate Markets and Military Missions, Praeger, NewYork.
[4] Freeman, C. (1982), “The Economics of Industrial Innovation”, Cambridge, MIT Press, MA.
[5] Jung-Chun Hsieh,, (2004), Analysis of Science Linkage in TFT-LCD patents., unpublished thesis, National Chung Hsing University.
[6] Kalakota ,Ravi & Andrew B. Whinston, Electronic Commerce : A Manager’s Guide , Addison Wesley.
[7] Karki, M, M, S, (1997), Patent Citation Analysis : A policy Analysis Tool, World Patent Information, 19(4)
[8] Laudon, K. C., and Traver, C. G., (2002), E-Commerce: Business, Technology, Society, Addison-Wesley, Boston.
[9] Liu, S.J. Chen, J.L, (2001), Development and Strategies of E-Commerce Patents, The First international Conference on Electronic Business, pp1.
[10] Narin, F. and Olivastro, D., (1988), Technology indicators based on patents and patent citations. Handbook of Quantitative Studies of Science and Technology, A. F. J. Van Rann, Ed. North Holland: Elsevier Publishers.
[11] Narin, F., Smith, V. M. and Albert, M. B., (1993), What patents tell you about your competition. Chemtech 23(2), 52-69.
[12] Narin, F, (1999), Tech-Line BACJGROUND PAPER ,Measuring Strategic Competence.
[13] OECD (1994), Using Patent Data As Science and Technology Indicators, OECD PATENT MANUAL.
[14] Smith, V. M., (1993), Who’s who in additives-a technological approach., Chem. Weekly 38,137-142
[15] Steele, L., (1989), Managing Technology — The Strategic View, McGraw-Hill, New York.
[16] Szu-Hsuan Chan, (2003), Measuring Innovative Capability with Patent Indicators: The Case of FPD Industry in Taiwan, unpublished thesis, National Chiao Tung University.
[17] Zwass, V., (1996), Electronic commerce: Structure and issues, International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 1 (1), 3-23
三、網站資料 (按照字母排序)
[1]Amazon.com, Inc., http://www.amazon.com.
[2]AT&T Corp. v. Excel Communications, Inc., http://www.law.emory.edu/fedcircuit/apr99/98-1338.wp.html
[3]AT&T, http://www.att.com/.
[4]CHI Research, Inc.,
http://www.chiresearch.com/index.php3.
[5]General Information Concerning Patents,
http://www.uspto.gov.
[6]Hewlett-Packard Company, http://www.hp.com/.
[7]Hitachi, Ltd., http://www.hitachi.com.
[8]International Business Machines Corp., http://www.ibm.com.
[9]InterTrust Technologies Corp., http://www.intertrust.com/.
[10]Micro Patent, http://www.micropat.com.
[11]Microsoft Corporation, http://www.microsoft.com.
[12]OECD, http://www.oecd.org/.
[13]Patent on E-Commerce, http://www.iusmentis.com/patents/businessmethods/pcactive0204/.
[14]SCI website: http://www.isinet.com/products/citation/sci/.
[15]State Street Bank & Trust Co. v. Signature Fin. Group, Inc.
http://www.law.emory.edu/fedcircuit/july98/96-1327.wpd.html.
[16]The Patent and Trademark Office, Examination Guidelines for Computer-Related Inventions,
http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/com/hearings/software/analysis/computer.html.
[17]TIPO, http://www.tipo.gov.tw/index.asp.
[18]USA Technologies, Inc., http:// www.usatech.com/.
[19]USTPO, http://www.uspto.gov/.
[20]VeriFone Inc., http:// www.verifone.com/.
[21]WIPO, http://www.wipo.com.tw/.

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