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研究生:劉凱瑋
研究生(外文):Kai-Wei Liu
論文名稱:應用數位相機技術量測複合材料之應力集中係數
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of stress intensity factors of cracks using video camera
指導教授:朱聖浩
指導教授(外文):Shen-Haw Ju
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:最小二乘法數位相機實體顯微鏡有限元素分析應力集中係數
外文關鍵詞:Stress intensity factorsFinite element analysisMicroscopeVideo cameraLeast-squares method
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  本論文主要目的在使用數位相機配合實體顯微鏡來量測試體變位,並用最小二乘法求解開裂處之應力集中係數,量測試體可為均向性及異向性材料。一般而言,量測的方法很多,但須複雜的步驟或昂貴的儀器,由於近年來數位相機發展一日千里及物美價廉,其解析度配合實體顯微鏡已可用來量測變位。首先在試體上貼上基準點,然後使用數位相機配合實體顯微鏡,將變位前後之影像紀錄,由變位前後之影像比對,得到各點之變位,配合類似有限元素法由變位求應力之步驟,求的開裂處之應力集中係數。本研究亦將先使用有限元素法,模擬實驗之結果,並證明所有步驟之正確度及可能產生之誤差。
  本論文乃是與博士班學生 劉淑秀共同完成,在未來她會使用此方法並應用在其他的領域裡。
  The main purpose of this thesis is to use the video camera incorporating the microscope to measure the specimen displacement field during the experiment, and the least-squares method will be used for finding the stress intensity factors (SIFs) of the cracked specimen. In general, there are some other experiment measurements to measure the SIFs of the cracked specimen, but most of them are not suitable or high instrument cost or complex experimental procedure. Recently, the progress of video camera is very quick, and the price is more and more inexpensive. The video camera incorporating the microscope is able to measure the displacement field. Use the video camera and microscope to record the specimen before and after loading. Compare with the two images, one can find the displacement field of the specimen. Then, use the least-squares method to find the SIFs. All the procedures of the experiment will be first simulated by using the finite element data to validate the accuracy and evaluate the coming error of the experiment.
  This research is completed with a candidate for doctor's degree, Shu-Hsiu Liu. In the future, she will apply this method in many fields.
Abstract (Chinese) I
Abstract II
Acknowledgement (Chinese) Ⅲ
Contents Ⅳ
List of tables Ⅶ
List of figures Ⅷ

Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Prologue 1
1.2 Literature review 2
1.3 Motivation and purpose 3
1.4 Scope 3

Chapter 2. Theoretical background 5
2.1 Anisotropic constitutive relations 5
2.1.1 Composite materials 5
2.1.2 Transformation of stress and strain 9
2.1.3 Experiments to find composite material constants 12
2.1.4 Evaluate the material constants by the least-squares method 14
2.2 Brief account of finite element method 17
2.3 Fracture mechanics concepts 23
2.3.1 In-plane displacement and stress fields near the crack tip 23
2.3.2 Least-squares method to find and 31

Chapter 3. Composite material property test of carbon 32
3.1 Instruments 32
3.1.1 Instron 8800 material test system 32
3.1.2 The video camera 34
3.1.3 The stereo microscope 34
3.1.4 The strain gauge indicator 34
3.2 Carbon composite material specimens 34
3.2.1 Material 38
3.2.2 Process of making specimens 38
3.3 Single axial tension test 38
3.3.1 Purpose 38
3.3.2 Apparatus 38
3.3.3 Procedure 41
3.3.4 Stress-strain relationship of composite material 41
3.4 The crack measurement 41
3.4.1 Purpose 41
3.4.2 Apparatus 45
3.4.3 Procedure 45
3.4.4 Calculate the crack displacement by programming 45

Chapter 4. Results and Discussions 53
4.1 Results 53
4.1.1 The material constants 53
4.1.2 Illustration the finite element program 55
4.1.3 The stress intensity factor 59
4.2 Discussions 62

Chapter 5. Conclusions and future works 65
5.1 Conclusions 65
5.2 Future works 66

References 68
自述 (Chinese) 103
1.李官峰,“實驗方法計算複合材料之材料係數”,國立成功大學土木工程系碩士論文,朱聖浩教授指導,民國九十二年.
2.Rosen, B. Walter. , “A Simple Procedure for Experimental Determination of the Longitudinal Shear Modulus of Unidirectional Composites”, J. Compos. Mater. , 6, 552-554, 1972 [1].
3.Chamis, Christos C. and Sinclair, John H., “Ten-Degree Off-Axis Test for Shear Properties in Fiber Composites”, Exp. Mech., 17, 339-346, 1977 [1].
4.Kobayashi, Albert S., Handbook on Experimental Mechanics, 2nd, SEM, New York, 858-867, 1993 [1].
5.W. S. Boyle and G. E. Smith., “Charge Coupled Semiconductor Device”, Bell System Technical Journal, 49, 587-593, 1970 [1].
6.徐萬星, “數位相機影像分析中的幾何校正、景物疊合及物體分離”, 國立交通大學資訊科學系碩士論文, 蔡文祥教授指導, 民國八十七年.
7.Petrovic M, Kastelan-Macan M, Babic S, “Quantitative evaluation of 2D chromatograms with a CCD camera”, JPC-JOURNAL OF PLANAR CHROMATOGRAPHY-MODERN TLC, Vol. 11, 353-356, 1998 [1].
8.林佳芬, “CCD影像儀光學系統測試之效能分析”, 國立成功大學物理系碩士論文, 陳志隆教授指導, 民國九十一年 [1].
9.LEIF A. CARLSSON, R. BYRON PIPES, “Experimental Characterization of Advanced Composite Materials”, University of Delaware, 1987.
10.E. E. GDOUTOS, “Fracture Mechanics”, school of Engineering, University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece, 1993.
11.Shen-Haw Ju, “Simulating stress intensity factors for anisotropic materials by the least squares method”, International Journal of Fracture, 81(3), 283-297.
12.施威銘研究室, “PC影像處理技術(二)圖檔壓縮篇”, 1994.
13.SAID A. KHALIL, C.T. SUN and W.C. HWANG, “Application of a hybrid finite element method to determine stress intensity factors in unidirectional composites”, International Journal of Fracture, 31, 37-51, 1986.
14.朱聖浩, “非線性有限元素分析”.
15.徐德修, 朱聖浩, “微電腦結構分析程式”, 松崗, 1998.
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