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研究生:顏惠英
研究生(外文):Hui-Ying Yen
論文名稱:直接、有系統之字母拼讀教學與有意涵之閱讀讀物練習對國小學童外語閱讀之成效
論文名稱(外文):An Examination of the Effect of Explicit Phonics Instruction and Authentic Readings on EFL Elementary Pupils
指導教授:閔慧慈閔慧慈引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hui-Tzu Min
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:國小英語閱讀字母拼讀
外文關鍵詞:readingexplicit phonicsauthentic readings
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論文摘要

本研究旨在探討直接而有系統之字母拼讀教學與練習有含意之閱讀讀物對於國小學童閱讀英語之成效。本研究對象為41位台南市區一所國小三年級學生。這些學生只在學校學過一年基礎口語英語,不曾補習或學過字母拼讀法。經隨意分配為控制組與實驗組。
本研究分為兩個階段。首先,所有2組學生各接受總共20小時的課程,包含學習直接、有系統之字母拼讀與各練習閱讀有、無前後文關係之有意義句子。這個階段的目的在提供國小三年級學生朗讀英文字母、單字、與句子之發音,與理解英文單字與句子的能力。第二階段的測驗目的在提供實驗證據證明直接、有系統且密集的字母拼讀教學對國小學生字母、單字、與句子之發音有明顯助益;並比較練習閱讀有、無前後文關係之句子對於國小學童閱讀英語之成效。
研究結果如下:
一、20小時字母拼讀與閱讀課程(含12小時明確、密集的字母拼讀與8小時練習閱讀有意義之句子)對國小中年級英語初學者字母、單字、與句子之發音有極明顯助益。
二、20小時字母拼讀與閱讀課程(含12小時明確、密集的字母拼讀與8小時練習閱讀有意義句子)有助於國小中年級英語初學者的認字、理解句子和簡單故事。
三、相較於練習無前後文關係之句子的控制組學生,練習閱讀故事的實驗組學生在獨立閱讀故事時並無明顯較優良的表現。
總結而論,直接而有系統之字母拼讀教學與練習閱讀有意義之句子有助於訓練國小英語初學者開始獨立閱讀適合他們程度的英文讀物。而經由學習讀出或理解英文字、句子、甚或簡短的故事似乎可以有效且明顯提昇初學者對英語學習的興趣,並建立自信心。
Abstract

The study examined the effects of explicit phonics instruction and authentic readings on EFL elementary pupils. The subjects, consisting of 41 third-grade students who had never known about phonics in an urban elementary school in Tainan City, were divided into a Control Group and an Experimental Group randomly.
This study consisted of two stages. In the first stage, all these pupils had to receive a 20 hours of program of phonics and reading including 12 hours of explicit phonics instruction and 8 hours of practicing reading meaningful sentences. The aim of this stage was to provide these third-grade elementary pupils with the ability to decode English letters, words, and sentences, and to comprehend English words, and sentences. In the second stage, the researcher gave the pupils tests in order to provide empirical evidence for the effect of explicit phonics instruction and authentic readings on EFL elementary pupils.
The findings of the study are summarized as follows:
1. Intensive and explicit phonics instruction in 20 hours (12 hours in receiving phonics instruction, and 8 hours in practicing reading sentences collections) has produced a positive effect on EFL young learners’ ability to decode letter sounds and words.
2. Intensive and explicit phonics instruction in 20 hours is helpful to EFL young learners in their ability to recognize words, comprehend sentences and stories.
3. Although the expected direction is detected, young phonics beginning learners who practice reading stories did not perform significantly better than those who practiced reading sentences without contextual relationship among them.
In conclusion, this study shows that with the aid of learning phonics explicitly and practicing reading proper meaningful sentences, beginning elementary school readers could read English that fits for their levels independently. And through learning to decode and comprehend English words, sentences or simple texts, the EFL young learners appeared to raise their interest and confidence in learning English.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study  1 
Purpose of the Study  3 
Significance of the Study  4 
Research Questions  5 
Definition of Terms  6 

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

Overview 10
Phonics Instruction in English Classroom 10
Research on Effective Ways to Teach Phonics 12
Explicit Phonics 13
Orton-Gillingham approach 14
The direct-instruction approach 15
Comparison of Orton-Gillingham and Direct Instruction 17
Implicit Phonics 19
Whole Language Phonics Instruction 20
Comparison among Explicit, Implicit and Whole Language
Phonics 23
Reading for EFL Students 26
English Language Proficiency 27
Alphabetic knowledge & phonemic awareness 27
Prior Knowledge and Contextual Analysis 28
Prior knowledge 29
Contextual analysis 29
Materials for Practice 31
Critique 32

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY

Site 34
Participants 35
Procedure of the Instruction 36
The First Stage 36
The content of the instruction     36
The procedure 37
The lesson plan of the first class for the two groups 38
The lesson plans of the second and the other following
classes for the two groups 40
Words for practicing decoding and blending 42
The Second Stage 42
The content of the instruction 42
The procedure 43
Lesson plans for the two groups 45
Summary 48
Experiment 48
Procedure 48
Scoring 50
Data Analysis 52

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Overview 53
Decoding Letters and Words 54
Comprehending Words, Sentences, and Story 59
Comprehension of Stories between Students with or without
Receiving Contextual Analysis 69
Summary 70

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION

General Findings 72
Limitations 75
Suggestions for Future Research 76
Educational Implications 77

REFERENCES 79




Appendix:

Appendix A: Students’ Auditory Vocabulary in the Textbook I & II 88
Appendix B: Lesson Plans of The First Stage (3rd class ~8th class) 91
Appendix C: Sentence Collections for the Experimental Group 97
Appendix D: Sentence Collections for the Control Group 98
Appendix E: The Story for the Test 99
Appendix F: The Results of the Test for Decoding Letter-Sounds and Words 100
Appendix G: The Results of the Test for Comprehending Words, Sentences,
and Answering Correctly Comprehension Questions 102
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