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研究生:許儷齡
研究生(外文):Li-ling Hsu
論文名稱:兩種字音拼讀教授設計對國小六年級學生聲韻覺識與拼字能力之成效
論文名稱(外文):The Effectiveness of Two Phonics Programs on Sixth Graders' Phonemic Awareness and Spelling Ability
指導教授:簡華麗簡華麗引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hua-li Jian
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:308
中文關鍵詞:音韻覺識字音拼讀教學拼字
外文關鍵詞:phonics instructionword spellingphonemic awareness
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  本研究的目的在探討兩種字音拼讀教授設計對三組國小六年級學童的音韻覺識、拼字、讀字能力之成效。此兩種字音拼讀課程的內容包含了一個共同使用的字音拼讀法部分,以及一個不同的音韻覺識訓練部分。本研究中用於兩個控制組的音韻覺識訓練僅包含母音辨識、音素混合、音素切割。用於實驗組的音韻覺識訓練部分則包含了更多項目。從音韻覺識、拼字能力、讀無意義字能力的前、後測結果所獲得之增益來看,本研究發現:
1. 兩種字音拼讀教學課程皆有助於學英語孩童的音韻覺識和拼字能力之進步。但是課程內容包含較多的音韻覺識訓練項目者,比僅包含母音辨識、音素混合、音素切割者效益大。
2. 字音拼讀教學課程中包含較多的音韻覺識訓練項目者,對於有參加課後英語補習者的音韻覺識和拼字能力之發展助益較大;但是,對於沒有參加課後英語補習的學生,或者本研究開始時字母觀念不佳的學生,字音拼讀教學課程中包含較少音韻覺識訓練項目者,較有助其音韻覺識之發展。
3. 字音拼讀教學內容中包含較少音韻覺識訓練項目,並且未使用字母卡者,不足以增進孩童的無意義字拼讀能力。
  本研究提出以下建議:
1. 音韻覺識訓練應納入字音拼讀教學課程之中,如此才能培養學習英語的孩童之讀寫能力。同時,音韻覺識訓練應當早於字音拼讀教學之前進行。
2. 從事兒童英語教學的英文教師應對學生進行音韻覺識評量,藉此決定學生需要哪些程度的音韻覺識訓練。如果可能的話,音韻覺識訓練應以有趣的遊戲、故事、兒歌,好玩的活動等方式進行。
3. 在教授完一個階段的字音拼讀規則後,應配合採用有意義、可解碼拼讀的文章讓孩童閱讀,讓學童從多次練習中內化所學到的字音拼讀規則。
  This study explored the effectiveness of two phonics programs on phonemic awareness (PA) development, word spelling and word reading abilities of three groups of sixth graders at elementary school. Both phonics programs contained an identical phonics instruction part and a PA training part. The PA training implemented with the two Control Groups included vowel identification, phoneme blending, and phoneme segmentation, while the other approach adopted with the Experimental Group included more PA skills. The pretest-to-posttest gains from PA assessments, spelling assessments, and nonsense-word reading assessments led to the following findings:
1. Both approaches improved these EFL beginners’ PA and spelling ability. However, the program that included more PA skills yielded more gains.
2. Incorporating more PA skills was more helpful to cram-schoolers in terms of PA development and spelling ability. However, including less PA skills benefited more with the PA development of non-cram-schoolers and those who did not have a solid alphabetic knowledge when the research started.
3. The phonics program that contained less PA skills and excluded manipulation with phonogram cards was not sufficient to improve nonsense-word reading ability.
  In conclusion, the following suggestions were recommended:
1. PA training should be incorporated in phonics programs so as to foster EFL beginners’ literacy, and should be implemented prior to phonics instruction.
2. English teachers should conduct PA assessment with students so as to decide the components of the PA training. If possible, PA training should be instructed with the use of interesting games, stories, nursery rhymes, and fun activities.
3. After each sequence of phonics rules is instructed, decodable, meaningful texts should be adopted to provide children experiences practicing and internalizing the learned phonics rules.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Page
1.1 Motivation 001
1.2 Background to the Study Design 003
1.3 Definition of Terms 008
1.4 The Research Purpose 014
1.5 The Research Questions 014
1.6 The Hypotheses 015
1.7 Thesis Outline 016

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Latest Reform in Beginning Reading Instruction 018
2.2 Historical Debate on Reading Instruction 019
2.3 The Latest Research on the Debate 022
2.4 The Nature of the English Orthography 023
2.5 Phonemic Awareness and Phonemic Awareness Training 024
2.6 Phonics and Phonics Instruction 028
2.7 Researches on Phonics and Phonemic Awareness 031
2.8 Stages of Reading Development and Relevance to Phonics and
Phonemic Awareness 041
2.9 Spelling and Reading 044
2.9.1 Word Spelling 047
2.9.2 Word Reading 050

CHAPTER THREE METHODLOGY
3.1 Overview 055
3.2 Design of the Study 058
3.2.1 The Subjects 065
3.2.1.1 The Experimental Group 066
3.2.1.2 The Control Groups 066
3.3 Similarities and Differences of the Two Phonics Programs 067
3.3.1 The Teaching Materials 071
3.3.2 The Teaching Process 072
3.4 The Assessments 075
3.4.1 PA Assessment 080
3.4.2 Word Spelling Assessment 082
3.4.3 Nonsense Word Reading Assessment 085

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Performance in Phonemic Awareness Assessment 090
4.1.1 Pretest Results 092
4.1.1.1 The Experimental Group 093
4.1.1.2 Control Group-1 098
4.1.1.3 Word Reading Group 103
4.1.2 Pretest Comparison 108
4.1.3 Mid-test Results of the Experimental Group 111
4.1.4 Pretest-Midtest Comparison 115
4.1.5 Posttest Results 116
4.1.5.1 The Experimental Group 117
4.1.5.2 Pretest-Posttest Comparison 120
4.1.5.3 Control Group-1 121
4.1.5.4 Pretest-Posttest Comparison 124
4.1.6 Cross-Time Comparison 125
4.1.7 Cross-Group Comparison 126
4.1.8 Discussion on PA Performance 127
4.2 Performance in Spelling Assessment 138
4.2.1 Pretest Results 139
4.2.1.1The Experimental Group 139
4.2.1.2 Control Group-1 141
4.2.2 Pretest Comparison 142
4.2.3 Midtest Results of the Experimental Group 142
4.2.4 Posttest Results 145
4.2.4.1 Results of Posttest I 146
4.2.4.1.1 Results of the Experimental Group 146
4.2.4.1.2 Results of Control Group-1 149
4.2.4.2 Results of Posttest II 152
4.2.4.2.1 Results of the Experimental Group 152
4.2.4.2.2 Results of Control Group-1 155
4.2.5 Spelling Gains 158
4.2.6 Discussion on Spelling Performance 161
4.3 Performance in Nonsense Word Reading 174
4.3.1 Pretest Results 175
4.3.1.1 Short Vowels 175
4.3.1.2 Long Vowels 176
4.3.1.3 Digraphs, Blends 177
4.3.1.4 Other Vowels 178
4.3.1.5 Pretest Performance 179
4.3.2 Posttest Results 182
4.3.2.1 Short Vowels 182
4.3.2.2 Long Vowels 183
4.3.2.3 Digraphs, Blends 184
4.3.2.4 Other Vowels 185
4.3.2.5 Posttest Performance 186
4.4 Pretest-Posttest Comparison 189
4.5. An Overall View of All the Test Results 191

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, LIMITAITONS, AND IMPLICATIONS
5.1 Conclusions 196
5.1.1 Effectiveness on Group Performance 196
5.1.2 Effectiveness of the Phonics Instruction 198
5.1.3 Effectiveness of the PA Training 200
5.1.4 Effectiveness of the Phonics Programs 201
5.2 Limitations 204
5.3 Implications 207
5.4 Suggestions for Further Researches 210

NOTES 213

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