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研究生:蘇張和惠
研究生(外文):Ho-Hui Su-Chang
論文名稱:國際市場進入模式的選擇─印度和台灣藥廠經驗之實證研究
指導教授:蔡明田蔡明田引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Tien Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系(EMBA)專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:製藥產業國際市場進入策略進入模式架構
外文關鍵詞:Pharmaceutical industryEntry modeStructure model
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本研究參考Hill & Kim (1990) 國際市場進入模式所提出的架構,以台灣與印度專家為研究對象,探討新興已開發國家與開發中國家經理人在國際市場進入策略之選擇模式;並比較兩國經理人在策略模式選擇觀點上是否有所不同,本研究匯整台灣、印度專家對於國際市場進入策略之差異結果後,作出如下結論:
1、在策略變數構面:對於多國策略或是全球策略的五個不同命題假說,雖然兩國專家均有部分採不同意的看法,唯經交叉分析後,只有第二個命題假說有顯著差異。顯示印度專家在國際市場進入策略上傾向採取較為靈活的彈性混合策略。
2、在環境變數構面:兩國專家對於各國政治系統、貨幣、文化、經濟、業務、市場需求以及技術迅速變化的市場對於市場進入策略影響的看法中,有兩個命題假說有顯著差異:(1)、文化上心理認知距離很大時, (2)、當地主國市場需求不確定時。
3、在交易變數構面下的兩個命題假說假說,兩國專家不同意的比例均低,經交叉分析亦無顯著差異,顯示對於技術的保護,在必要時採取減少分散風險和高度控制的態度是相當一致的。
4、在能力變數構面下,有關公司大小、技術、市場知識以及製造能力的四個命題假說中,只有當技術能力相對有限時,會選擇有限目標以高資源投入的命題假說,兩國專家有顯著差異,該結果可發現台灣專家比較傾向於在能力不足時,採取合作方式進入國際市場。
Based on the structure of the entry mode for international market proposed by Hill & Kim (1990), the researcher explored the choice of the entry mode for international market between the developed and developing countries, and compared the difference of relative views between Indian and Taiwanese pharmaceutical specialists. After compiling the result of their differences, the conclusions are as follows:
1、On the facet of strategy variants: Regarding five different hypotheses of either multinational strategy or global strategy, only the second hypothesis have obvious difference after cross analysis. The result shows that Indian specialists prefer to choose more elastic and mixed strategy.
2、On the facet of environment variants: Among the influences of the political system,currency,culture,economy,marketing, market demand and frequent technical changes to the entry mode, two hypotheses have obvious difference:(1) when the difference of psychological acknowledgement on culture is big, (2) when the market demand of local country is not certain.
3、On the two hypotheses under the facet of transaction variants: The disagreement rates of specialists from both countries are low. It remains non-obvious difference after cross analysis which shows the protection attitude of specialists from both countries for technique is rather concurrent.
4、On the facet of ability variants: Among four hypothese of company size, technique, market knowledge and manufacturing ability, only one issue has obvious difference. The result shows that Taiwanese specialists prefer to take cooperation as entry mode for international market while the company ability is in shortage.
目錄
摘要 I
ABSTRACT.........................................................II
目錄............................................................... III
表目錄............................................................. IV
圖目錄..............................................................V
第一章緒論.........................................................1
第一節研究動機..................................................1
第二節研究目的..................................................2
第三節研究流程..................................................3
第二章文獻探討.....................................................4
第一節多國企業相關文獻..........................................4
第二節經營策略相關文獻探討......................................9
第三節國際市場進入策略.........................................17
第三章研究設計與研究方法..........................................31
第一節研究架構.................................................31
第二節研究命題假設.............................................33
第三節研究變項之操作型定義與衡量...............................39
第四章產業概況....................................................41
第一節製藥產業的沿革與特性.....................................42
第二節全球製藥產業概況.........................................50
第三節印度製藥市場概況.........................................57
第四節台灣製藥產業概況.........................................58
第五節產業關鍵成功因素.........................................64
第五章資料統計分析................................................67
第一節問卷回收統計.............................................67
第二節研究對象基本特性之描述統計...............................68
第三節研究假說之驗證...........................................68
第四節兩國專家意見之交叉分析...................................73
第六章討論與建議..................................................85
第一節研究結論.................................................85
第二節學術意涵.................................................87
第三節實務建議.................................................88
第四節後續研究建議………………………………………………………….89
參考文獻...........................................................90
中文問卷
英文問卷
表目錄
表2.2.1 策略的定義.............................................................9
表2.2.2 策略的分類............................................................11
表2.2.3策略的類型.............................................................15
表2.2.4 策略的型態............................................................16
表2.2.5 策略的矩陣............................................................16
表2.3.1 進入模式與控制程度…..................................................18
表2.3.2接近方法...............................................................25
表3.1.1 不同進入模式的特性....................................................32
表3.3.1問項設計...............................................................40
表4.1.1 The Structure Of The Pharmaceutical Industry In Each Of Six Large Nations,1983..................................................................44
表4.1.2 Share of National Pharmaceutical Markets Attributable To Companies Originating From Each Of Six Large Nations,1983(%)............................44
表4.1.3 World Trade In Medicinal Products: Imports (Current Prices, $Millions)48
表4.1.4 World Trade In Medicinal Products: Exports (Current Prices, $Millions)49
表4.1.5 World Trade In Medicinal Products: Balance Of Trade (Current Prices,$Millions).............................................................50
表4.2.1 產品有單項年營業額超過1億美元以上的藥廠...............................52
表4.2.2 2000年全球製藥集團營業額前20名........................................53
表4.2.3全球製藥集團營收淨利前20名排名.........................................54
表4.2.4 1998與2002年全球銷售排名前20名製藥公司................................55
表4.2.5 全球藥廠員工數前20名排行表............................................56
表4.2.6 2000年全球前20名藥廠平均每年每位員工銷售額排行統計表..................57
表4.4.1 近五年台灣原料藥市場供需概況..........................................60
表4.4.2 1999-2002年台灣原料藥產值.............................................61
表4.4.3 1999-2002填台灣各類原料出口值分析.....................................62
表4.4.4 近五年台灣西藥製劑市場供需概況........................................62
表4.4.5 1999-2002年台灣西藥出口值分析.........................................63
表4.4.6 1999-2002年台灣西藥進口值分析.........................................63
表4.4.7 2002年台灣國資廠銷售額前十名排名表....................................64
表4.4.8 2001-2002年台灣地區藥品銷售通路.......................................64
表4.4.9 2002年台灣地區前20名藥商銷售額排名表..................................65
表4.5.1 製藥關鍵成功因素......................................................66
表5.1.1 問卷回收統計表........................................................68
表5.2.1 各特性樣本分析........................................................69
表5.3.1 各構面下專家對研究假說意見的平均值與標準差............................70
表5.3.2 各意見分類總數百分比..................................................72
表5.4.1 台印專家對多國策略的觀點差異比較表....................................75
表5.4.2台印專家對貨幣匯兌風險的觀點差異比較表.................................76
表5.4.3台印專家對文化上心理認知距離的觀點差異比較表...........................77
表5.4.4台印專家對經濟系統的觀點差異比較表.....................................79
表5.4.5台印專家對市場需求的觀點差異比較表.....................................80
表5.4.6台印專家對Know-How被剽竊風險的觀點差異比較表...........................82
表5.4.7台印專家對技術能力有限的觀點差異比較表.................................84
表6.1.1 研究構面與命題假說之驗證結果明細表....................................86

圖目錄
圖1.1.1 本研究之研究流程.......................................................3
圖2.3.1 公司績效與多角化的關係模式............................................13
圖2.3.2 事業部的競爭策略......................................................13
圖2.3.3 策略的管理過程........................................................14
圖2.3.4 分析進入模式效率的交易成本架構........................................28
圖3.1.1 決策架構..............................................................33
圖4.1.1 Manufacturing requirements............................................45
圖4.4.1 歷年台灣西藥產值......................................................62
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